大学英语写作中的中式英语现象分析(全英文)

写作博士 5本页 9601字

摘 要 

  中式英语问题在大学写作中表现得十分突出而英语的书面表达一直以来就是英语学习的瓶颈且反映了学生的语言综合水平。由于学习者在学习英语时受到母语的干扰,同时他们对英语的语感较差,对所学语言的文化习惯,语法等方面知识不够厚实,中式英语在他们书面表达中表现各式各样。本文将在语言迁移和元认知的理论指导下对其进行对策研究,在教学中努力促进母语的正迁移,减少负迁移,培养学生的元认知能力,提高学生在使用英语时的自我监控能力。让学生多背诵名篇佳作,熟记并能灵活运用一些习语,俗语,以增强英语语感,减少在写作中中式英语错误。

  关键词:中式英语;语言迁移;元认知;对策研究 

Abstract 

  Chinglish which is a common problem in college students’ composition manifestsin various ways due to the interference of the learner’s mother tongue and theirignorance in English culture, custom, and grammar. And writing in English reflects astudent’s all-round ability in English study. This essay, I will try to find some effectivemethods to solve this problem under the direction of language transfer andMeta-cognition. In the process of teaching, teachers can help students to improvepositive transfer and reduce negative transfer, and cultivate students’ meta-cognitiveability so that they can monitor their writing automatically. What’s more, recitingfamous and classic passages, idioms can also help improve students’ English insightand reduce Chinglish.

  Key words: Chinglish; language-transfer; Meta-cognition; counter-measure study 

Contents 

  1. Introduction 

  2. The Concept of Chinglish and the Importance of College Writing 

  3. The Forms of Chinglish in College Writing 

  3.1 From the level of words 

  3.2 From the level of syntax 

  3.3 From the depth of passage 

  4. The Causes of Chinglish in College English Writing 

  4.1 The special features in college English writing

  4.2 The impact of mother language——Chinese

      4.2.1 The effect of culture, life and custom

      4.2.2 The effect of Language habit in transfer

  4.3 Weakness in English insight

  5. Countermeasures

  5.1 To reduce Chinglish from the angle of the Meta-cognition

      5.1.1 Meta-cognition and second language acquisition (SLA)

      5.1.2 Meta-cognition’s effect to the forms of SLA

      5.1.3 The concrete countermeasures under the guide of themeta-cognition theory

  5.2 To reduce Chinglish from the angle of transfer

      5.2.1 The concept of language transfer and its forms

      5.2.2 Try to improve positive transfer and avoid negativetransfer 

  6. Conclusion 

1. Introduction 

  The primary motivation for me to choose “Chinglish” as the study object is thesudden appearance of some funny Chinglish idioms that widely spread in campus.

  When I really put my head in it, I find it’s never just for fun. What’s more, Chinglish incollege writing is a very common problem. As I will be a teacher in a college after thegraduation, I deeply hope this essay will do some contribution to my future career.

  Many scholars have studied it from the angle of language transfer and suggest reducingChinglish by strengthening the mother tongue’s positive transfer and reducing thenegative transfer. Some scholars advised to avoid Chinglish by cultivating students’

  Meta-cognitive ability so that they can monitor their language activities automatically.

  If I can find some effective counter-measures that can really help to solve this problem,I will be very happy. Only if we have been clear to the phenomena and causes, can weachieve this goal.

英语写作

2. The Concept of Chinglish and the Importance ofCollege Writing 

  According to The Translator’s Guide to Chinglish which is written by JoanPinkham, Chinglish, of course, is that misshapen, hybrid language that is neitherEnglish nor Chinglish but that might be described as “English with Chinesecharacteristics” (Joan Pinkham, 2002).

  We can easily find some typical examples to enlighten our understanding aboutChinglish. Such as : Good good study, day day up, which is a Chinese idiom meaningthat study hard and make progress every day. When we want to warn some body wemay say “we will go and see” or “I will give you some color to see see”. And this kindof expression sounds very strange and seemed a little silly to the English nativespeakers.

  Of course, these examples are some what a little exaggerating. But when it comesto the college English writing, there are many English problems indeed.

  College students have the ability to use English to organize a passage, but many ofthem use their Chinese way of thinking in this process due to their inadequate Englishinsight. That means when they use their second language they are affected by theirmother tongue. That’s a college student’s feature in English writing: They have theability to write a composition, but can’t get rid of the effect of his mother tongue.

  From a student’s writing fruits, we can identify his English condition in anall-round way for writing is the mirror of the student’s integrated ability. So it’s veryimportant to write a genuine composition.

3. The Forms of Chinglish in College Writing 

  The status drawn from 30 passages written by college students(马越,2001) 

表1

  We detect 284 errors, 114 of them aren’t related to Chinglish matters. And the rest is mainlyabout words, sentences, and passages.

  3.1 From the level of words 

  Any language certainly has some features which are shared with another; there aremany counter words in Chinese and English. For example, in Chinese, we have “ 浓汤”, “浓烟”, and these words can find their counter words in English : “thick soup”,“thick smoke”. But is there any thing that can be called as “thick tea” or “ thick coffee”

  as in Chinese we have “ 浓茶”, “浓咖啡”?

  The word “thick” generally describes a matter’s physical feature that contains howmuch matter per cubit or some other unit volume in English. But when we come to“ 浓茶”, “浓咖啡”,it refers to the intensity of a drink. So though we use “浓” todescribe it in Chinese , we use “strong” in English.

  Another example, in China, we have “足球” and as a counter word , they have“ football” in English. So some Chinese students created phrases like “warm house” todescribe a house which is used to plant plants when it’s cold as Chinese version “温室”,all right? Actually, there is no such a phrase in English. And the correct expression is“green-house”. In China, we can say “吃药”, but in English we have “takemedicine” instead of “ eat medicine”

  Generally, I ascribe Chinglish into these three aspects as following:

  A. Literary translation.

  Examples:

  好好学习,天天向上-------good good study, day day up.

  明天谁起地早谁叫谁-------tomorrow morning who get up early, who call whoB.  Improper usageExamples:

  简.爱是一个其貌不扬的女子-------Jane. Erye is an ugly lady.

  In this sentence, the word “ugly” should be replaced by “plain”, for the word“ugly” of course arouse people’s irritation, but we know Jane is a great lady.

  C. TautologyExamples:

  a) 在签约之前,公司可以考察我们,我们也可以考察公司--------Beforesigning the contract , the company can test us, and we can also test thecompany. The words underlined should just be “and vice versa”, which ismuch more concise.

  b) 彻底粉碎-------completely smash.

  The word “smash” already means break completely, and we don’t need the word“completely”

  Are these strange? Chinese students have known some thing about English culture.

  They know some authentic English expressions, but they don’t really know how to usethem. So they imitate them in the Chinese thinking way.

  We can understand this phenomenon very easily. From the facial level, we may say it’s becausethese students don’t know the fixed collation’s usage and don’t really understand them either. Whenwe go to a deeper level to search the causes, we know it’s because different society has differentcustoms, different language habits, and also different life. All these factors lead to the wide andprofound distinction between two languages(胡敏,1999).

  3.2 From the level of syntax 

  As to the syntax, we also can generalize Chinglish into the following fouraspects:

  A. Errors in the sequence of words.

  Examples:

  (1) 救死扶伤是一个医生的义务。

  Chinglish: It’s a doctor’s duty to rescue the dying and heal the wounded.

  English: It’s the doctor’s duty to heal the wounded and to rescues the dying.

  (2) 杨澜住中国北京朝阳区 

  Chinglish: YangLan lives in china of Beijing ChaoyangEnglish: YangLan lives in Chaoyang district of Beijing in China.

  The examples show clearly that in Chinglish, words are used from strong to weak,but in English it is just the opposite.

  B. Ignorance in shifting the part of speech .

  Examples:

  (1)我们之间关系的发展是我们不仅成为亲密的朋友而且成为兄弟。

  Chinglish: The development of our relations has made us not only closefriends but also brothers.

  English: Our relations have so grown that we bind as not only close friendsbut also brothers.

  (2)社会快速发展,所以学生了解校园外的世界很重要。

  Chinglish: It is very important for the students to know the world outside thecampus, because now the society is developing quickly.

  English: With the development of the society, it’s important for the students toknow the world outside the campus.

  We can infer from the Chinglish sentences above that lacking of the ability toshift the part of a speech is another cause of Chinglish writing in college(周丽娟,2004).

  C. Errors in voice 

  Examples:

  (1)这个礼物是他的叔叔给他的。

  Chinglish: This gift is his uncle gives him.

  English: This gift was given by his uncle.

  (2)你的信收到了 

  Chinglish: Your letter has receivedEnglish: Your letter has been received.

  In China, we use active voice much oftener than passive ones.

  D. Improper use in negative forms 

  Examples:

  (1)我觉得这不是一个好主意。

  Chinglish: I think it’s not a good idea.

  English: I don’t think it’s a good idea.

  (2)我认为今天不能去。

  Chinglish: I think we can’t go today.

  English: I don’t think we can go today.

  In English people negate the verb “think”, but Chinese people like to negate the clause better.

  3.3 From the depth of passage.

  Native English speakers usually emphasize clear structure, strong logic anddefinite opening when they write a composition(陈三东,2005).

  Many famous essays written by the English native speakers have these kinds offeatures. For example:

  Lincoln’s The Gettysburg Address, Forkner’s Banquet Speech. Hellen’s Three Daysto See, Russel’s What I Lived For, and Luther’s I Have a Dream. These famous essaysnever beat the bush at the beginning, and we can easily point out the structure when wefirst read them, and of course, their logic is also very strong and fit of people’s thinkingform.

  No matter whether you admit it or not, we can really find many examples toapprove this. Chinese people are most likely so implicative that they usually don’tclearly point out their topic at the beginning.

  As in China, we also can indicate Chinese passages’ features from some famouspassages: ”《伤仲永》ShangZhongYong, 《腾王阁序》TengWangGeXu” We only getthe author’s idea at the end of the passage. As to the college students, they have seriousproblems in structure organization.

  For example, when they were asked to write a passage of “how to cook vegetables”,they may usually write in the following way:

  Do you know how to make vegetables? People wash vegetables. Put some oil inthe pan when the pan is hot. Put salt in it before putting it in dishes. Vegetables are verygood to our health.

  In this example, there are many serious problems in coherence and content. Firstof all, it lacks of necessary transient words, if added with “firstly, secondly, and thirdly”

  at the beginning of last to the first three sentences, the passage will be much better.

  What’s more, the last sentences are unnecessary.

4. The Causes of Chinglish in College English Writing 

  4.1 The special features in college English writing 

  College students have higher language ability than high school students whichenable them to express their thinking in English. But they also have lower ability thanthe genuine English speakers that they don’t get familiar enough with the secondlanguage habits, customs and rules as the native speakers do. So they create Chinglishwhen they write.

  For their Chinese ability has already been solidly founded, they can use it so skillfully that theytake it to English learning automatically, which will play certain effect on English learning. We canfind convictive proof in the table above in section3.

  4.2 The impact of mother language——Chinese 

  Linguists have defined this interaction as “language transfer”. It’s an importantconcept of Learning Psychology. People believe language task A affects language taskB during learning a language. Task A is the first language and task B is the secondlanguage. Dechert and Raupach say“Between the known and unknown, old and new,language and non-language, transfer is human’s basic cognitive principle”(桂诗春,1992)So, when Chinese students are learning and using English they can’t avoid thetransfer between these two languages. We can easily find this in the table above insection3.

  4.2.1 The effect of culture, life and custom 

  Let’s get a clearer and deeper understanding from the following examples:

  In Chinese, we have 单数/复数. So we may have them in English as these: singlenumber/double number. But actually they should be used as those: odd number/ evennumber.

  we have the Chinese word “辣”(spicy) to describe a kind of taste, but when youlook at this expression: “They are telling spicy jokes”, you may feel at loss, for I “spicyjokes” here means joke that related with sex.

  Another example:

  花格衬衫 

  Chinglish:colored squares shirt / (English) checkered shirt.

  As in the west, people all play chess, and the chess square is “checker”. So theyuse “checker” to describe the shape of square. Chinese people don’t play chess verymuch so they don’t have such a concept in their mind when coming to describesomething that looks like the chess square.

  Example:

  如果你再迟到,就卷铺盖走人了。

  Chinglish: If you are late again, you will have to get the guilt/ English: If you arelate again, you will have to get the sack. And “sack” means luggage. A Chinese studentmay properly use “guilt” instead.

  Example: 十之八九 

  Chinglish: eight or nine in ten.

  English: ten to one.

  We can see from the examples above the differences between two societies’ life andcustoms have done a lot contribution to the form of Chinglish. What’s more, life andcustoms have wide fields and are related to various aspects of people’s life which maymake the situation more complex. If we want to get rid of Chinglish, we should knowmore about western life, customs, and language rules.

  4.2.2 The effect of Language habit in transfer.

  Firstly, Chinese are used to describing a thing from its outer feature. WhileEnglish people like to describe a thing from its inner principle(陈三东,2005). Thatmeans Chinese take “outer” more important, the English people vice versa.

  For example: 管乐器

  Chinglish: Tube instrument. English: wind instrumentSecondly, there are some what a little different in repetition.

  For example : 请再重复一遍.

  Chinglish: Please repeat it again. English: Please repeat it.

  Actually,“重复”conclude the meaning of “again”. So in English we just use onlyone word: “repeat”, in Chinese, it is not an error, but in English it is.

  Thirdly, some flexible usage is different between the two languages. Forexample: 流鼻涕—have a running nose. 你先请—after you. And some Chineseflexible expression like“龙马精神”,“饮食男女”can’t be accept by the western andthey think they are rubbish and nonsense.

  From 4.2.1——4.2.2, we can generalize the negative effect of mother language in a collegestudent’s English writing into two aspects: The first one is life, culture and custom differenceswhich make Chinese students’ thinking way Chinglish. The second one is Chinese languagehabits restrict students to form genuine English writing ability.

  4.3 Weakness in English insight 

  Actually this is a repetition of 4.2 from another viewpoint. Students don’t knowenough about English, they don’t know the western custom well, and they alsodon’t know the social habits and Language rules either. They can’t speak Englishfluently without any thinking just as they speak Chinese.

  Cognitive linguistics views the relation among language, thinking, and realityas the core of linguistic study, and they believe that the same concept of differentlanguage can be expressed in different imagery, and different language has iconicityin different level (赵世开,2001).

  Just because people use different imagery and metaphor to indicate the samething in different languages, students who don’t know much about the targetlanguage——English can hardly get rid of their mother tongue’s negative transfer.

  For example, in English we have “White hair boy” to imply a really luckyperson which is referred to as “宠儿” in Chinese. But if the Chinese students don’tknow this information, they surely will express in the way: He is a very luckyperson, when they actually want to say “宠儿”. If we want to say“乱七八糟”inEnglish, we may have headache if we don’t know the idiom :“at sixes and sevens”.

  So if we want to avoid Chinglih in College writing, we should not only getfamiliar with Chinglish but also should get wide English knowledge in variousfields.

5. Countermeasures 

  5.1 To reduce Chinglish from the angle of the Meta-cognition 

  5.1.1 Meta-cognition and second language acquisition (SLA) 

  The systematic study of how people acquire a second language is fairly recentphenomenon, belonging to the second half of the twentieth century. At first sight, themeaning of the term “second language acquisition” seems transparent. But, in fact, itrequires careful explanation. For one thing, in this context “Second” can refer to anylanguage that is learned subsequent to the mother tongue. Thus, it can refer to thelearning of a third or forth language. Also “second” is not intended to contrast with“foreign” whether you are learning a language naturally as a result of living in acountry where it is spoken, or learning it in a classroom through instruction, it iscustomary to speak generically of “second” language acquisition. “L2 acquisition”, canbe defined as the way in which people learn a language other than their mother tongue,inside or out side of a classroom (Rod Ellis, 2003).

  Chinese students have already mastered Chinese—their mother tongue, andEnglish is their second language from their high school for over-whelming part ofthem.

  As it’s known to us all that learning a language is learning a kind of thinking form.

  That’s what our Chinese students are doing now. They try to gain the ability of Englishthinking form. But how can achieve this? That’s what meta-cognition there to talkabout.

  From the angle of cognitive science, we can find language acquisition, foreignlanguage learning and its usage are information dealing processes which includesinformation receiving, choosing, processing, staring and using, and this process hasmuch to do with people’s intuition, memory, understanding, thinking and deciding orother psychological tools like these. There are wide and strong relations betweenlanguage acquisition and foreign language learning.

  The former one not only plays an important role in language learning but also effectthe acquisition skill a lot.

  Meta-cognition is first put forward by American Children psychologist J.F.Flsvell in1976. He thinks meta-cognition refers to people’s cognition to their cognitive activities.

  It includes the cognition of the effect between the underway cognition about hispsychological condition, ability, aim and strategies, as well as the cognition plan andcontrolling(周海中&刘少龙 ,2001).

  Three parts make up a complete meta-cognition, they are: meta-cognitionknowledge, that’s what they are or about to learn or study in language acquisition;meta-cognition feelings, that’s what they have learnt; meta-cognition monitors, whichmonitors what they do—controlling their language usage after they have learnt it, andmake what they speak, and write more correct.

  5.1.2 Meta-cognition’s effect to the forms of SLA 

  Meta-cognition’s effect in language monitor is the propounding feature of variouscognition activities, as well as the key to decide them. The effect of trainingmeta-cognition can transfer widely and deeply in acquiring a second language ( 桂诗春,1991,1992).

  In college English learning practice, English writing needs more meta-cognitionability. Because writing asks for not only the possession in vocabulary, grammar ability,but also the English way of thinking to organize a good passage in a real English way.

  We have already emphasized insight in language learning, but how to strengthen it?

  To get rid of Chinese thinking way is not an easy task, for it has controlled us for somany years.

  On the one hand, when English learners input or output some information, frominformation choosing, innerising (Acquisition) and putting out, he is restricted by hismeta-cognition condition. On the other hand, the input-output process providesmeta-cognition system rich feedback importations. The process goes on and on, makesstudents’ cognitive condition and ability stronger. Then their ability in informationinput, output, choosing, and transferring become better, so they can make the targetlanguage learning—English learning more quickly and properly.

  To some extent, learning a language is learning a kind of thinking way. To shiftChinglish thinking way to English thinking way is what meta-cognition calling on. Areally good school is a school that to give students an active mind.

  Positive and active second language acquisition (SLA) activity is the activity thatlearners take their cognitive process as the study object. Observe and control, monitor itconsistently, so they can refine, absorb and use it at the most extent, and achieve theirlearning aim as soon as they can.

  If they stick to it, the learners’ sense and intuition to their target language willbecome stronger and stronger. And they also will be more sensitive to their thinkingactivity process, thinking form and thinking results. On the contrary, a student evenwith time and validity, he can’t absorb any experiences from his learning process, letalone to train himself to form a genuine English thinking mind.

  5.1.3 The concrete countermeasures under the guide of themeta-cognition theory.

  Modern teaching thinks schools should pay their attention to teaching studentshow to study, and strengthen their self-control ability. And to teach students to gain theability of meta-cognition is one of the most important measures to develop students’

  self-learning ability. In China we have the idiom goes like this “授人鱼不如授人以渔”.

  Only if students know how to realize themselves, analyze themselves, can they controlthemselves, modulate themselves, and develop themselves.

  Some fruits of Meta-cognition study show that, Meta-cognition ability possesswide transfer ability and have strong interaction to the thinking form. For example, thecognition in SLA can be transferred and inter acted to their thinking form and nature.

  As to the features, they can take several measures to help their students to gain theMeta-cognition ability.

  The first one is self-foreseeing. That means to let students to think over what theywill do in the learning process, and how to achieve it. How many steps they should take,what kind of difficulties they may come across: how should they come over theseproblems. Through these, teachers make the students fully understand their aim, contentand solutions.

  For example, in the writing course, the teacher may give the students a topic, say,“My First Love”.

  First of all, the teachers can guide the students to know their writing aim: Tonarrate a story about their first love. And then students can know they should write itbecause the teacher may have told them they can write it in three or four paragraphs totell when, where, how it happens, and how they think about it now. Then the teachermay ask them to think about what kind of difficulties they may have in organizing thepassage, and how they should avoid them or come over them. Through this process,teacher may help the student to make up a clear structure of the whole writing from inconstruing this passage.

  From the meta-cognition angle, this is a strategy to build students’ meta-cognitionbefore writing. It can make the students understand their task accurately, and duringthis process they can develop their thinking form gradually. It contains meta-cognitionexperience, and it is the primary storing of meta-cognition.

  The second one is stimulant teaching courses. That means the students can take theteacher’s role to stand before the teacher’s desk to tell other students how to organizethis passage. What difficulties they may meet. This method asks him not only toknow how he plan to do in writing the passage, but also to tell us why he thinks in thatway to write the passage.

  The student’s “thinking report”, if we can call it a report, can make the studentshift his position from a learner to a teacher. It’s not only good to improve the students’

  self-sense (meta-cognition), but also can improve other students’ meta-cognitionindirectly, for the student who took the place of the teacher set an example to them.

  These two solutions are mainly good to the whole structure of the writing passage.

  In order to improve this, I have taken an experience in my summer training class. Theexperience goes like this:

  In order to make the experience more convictive, I do the experiment twice indifferent groups. I divided forty of my students into four groups. Each group containsten students, with the same English level. The first and the second group take theexperiment in the same day. The first group didn’t take any courses. They just wroteabout the topic that I assigned them directly. The second group took the self-foreseeingcourses before writing the passage. The result shows that the students in G1 didn’twrite as good passage as G2 did. They wrote the passage in a more Chinglish way.

  They don’t point out their main idea in the beginning, their structure is not clear enough,and the way they narrate was not as English as the students in G2.

  I did the same experiments several days later with another 20 students. And theresults show the same condition.

  As the condition limited, I just get high school students to do this experiment totake the place of college students, and for the class is too small, I can’t have enoughstudents to help me get a more accurate and convictive result. But, from theseexperiments, we can predict that the measures I suggested can really help reducingChinglish in college writing.

  Science is an industry that needs exploring. Meta-cognition study in the world has achievedgreat achievement, but it is not enough as it was formerly admitted from more than 20 years ago. So,it also has many uncertain factors just like other science did. Though its importance has caused wideattention, people still can’t find some valid authorities, concrete measures, strategies or methods totrain and develop the meta-cognition ability.

  5.2 To reduce Chinglish from the angle of transfer 

  5.2.1 The concept of language transfer and its forms.

  “Transfer” in “language transfer” is not a professional noun of second languageacquisition, but is an important concept of learning psychology. H.ELLIS had defined itas “The proposition task A’s influence to task B in learning activity.” (俞理明,2004).And we can take Language 1 and Language 2 to take the places of “task A” and“task B”. They can’t avoid the transfer between these two languages. Because theirChinese ability has been already acquired, it will play certain effect to English learning.

  That is language transfer, or we can say, language transfer is one theory of learningpsychology.

  Dechert and Raupach(1989) have said this: It’s the profound principle humancognition that there are transfer between the already known and unknown, new and old,language and non-language. So, language transfer has always been the most discussedtopic among the scholars who study to second language acquisition and secondlanguage education(俞理明,2004). And the definition of language transfer is various.

  The most widely accepted one is the one put forward by Odlin(1989) thought he didn’tfeel satisfied with him own definition. It goes like this:

  Transfer refers to the influence between the target language and the languagewhich has already been acquired (or not been acquired completely) because of theircommon features and differences (1989:27).

  According to Odlin’s definition, language transfer concludes both the influence ofother language that they have already acquired to the target language and the influenceof Mother tongue to it. Therefore, learner’s mother tongue can be called as “the firsttransfer language”. What’s more, Odlin also point out that, Mother tongue may causemany difficulties in learning a second language because of the differences betweenthem. That’s what we called “negative transfer”. But it also can help us to acquire anew language for there are also many common features between the target languageand our mother tongue, that’s positive transfer.

  But how does language transfer display in learning?

  We have positive transfer and negative transfer. The former one refers to thephenomenon that learners don’t make mistake when they learn the second languageunder the effect of their mother tongue. The later vice versa.

  The form of positive transfer can be seen as following: The common vocabularybetween the target language and the mother tongue may shorten the time they need toimprove their reading ability in second language. The common features shared betweentwo languages in writing system may lay a solid foundation for the learners to write andread in target language. The similarities in grammar between the target language andmother tongue can also help the learners to acquire the target language’s grammarknowledge: They will find fewer difficulties in learning the order of a sentence, orwords, clauses.

  Compared with the positive transfer, negative transfer is much easier to point out,for there are divergences from normal target language in negative transfer.

  Though people like to equal negative transfer with production errors, learners’

  divergences between the second language and their mother tongue also shows in otherways(俞理明,2004).

  For example: underproduction, overproduction and misinterpretation.

  I will give an example to explain this.

  For example:

  好好学习,天天向上。

  For this translation is word by word. It’s called “Calques”. Calques with anothertwo error forms “Substitution”, “Alternations of structures”, make up “productionerror”.

  Over production: Work hard everyday, and make progress. For“学习”is not refers to“work” and “work ”is not only means“学习”.

  Another example: A Chinese student want to say the verb“踩”when his foot getpain when other steps on it. He cried out: “Your foot is on my foot with power, and, I’mpainful” That’s an example of the point on underproduction.

  Another example of misinterpretation:

  大雨过后,河流上涨——The river rose after big rains. The word “big” here ismisused for it is used to describe an object’s volume but not strength. We should use“heavy” instead.

  5.2.2 Try to improve positive transfer and avoid negative transfer

  To this point, we will explain in two different directions, the first one is to improvepositive transfer and the second one is to avoid negative transfer.

  The most effective method to improve positive transfer is to use contrastive analysis.

  That is to compare the second language with the learner’s mother tongue to find theirdifferences and common features. Through this process, the learners can understandand use the second language better and faster.

  This method had other names such as “Bilingual comparison” called by Mackey.

  Many western teachers have already used it subjectively and irregularly. As to usingit in English teaching, it will also be a very good way to help improving positivetransfer.

  I will give you a concrete example to explain it.

  (1) English (a) I have a house.

  Chinese (b) 我有一个房子.

  (2) English (a) I have a bad mood.

  Chinese (b) 我有一个坏心情。

  We can find that we can accept (1) b, but we can’t accept (2) b. Why that happenedthough their sentence structure is almost the same?

  Then we will find that “House” is a concrete object, but “bad mood”, which refersto a kind of condition, is an abstract one.

  Then we may know that Chinese has strong limitation between a concrete and anabstract one. Then we may know when we can use a Chinese way to unite a correctEnglish sentence. That’s a kind of positive transfer.

  Or we can use the method of mutual-translation. That’s another way of contrastiveAnalysis.

  Limited by the inadequate study fruits in this field, I can just give this suggestion tohelp improve positive transfer, but as to avoid negative transfer, there are a little more.

  Just as human body, language learning also needs to strengthen anti-harm ability.

  The most basic one is to lay a solid grammar foundation. Once the students masterenough English grammar, they can find the errors by themselves, and can get rid of itbefore they write them down. That’s very easy just need the teachers’ explanation andstudents’ energy in memorizing it.

  Another method to strengthen students’ “anti-harm” ability to Chinglish is tostrengthen their insight in English.

  The most direct way is to send the students into a language environment. Just asLiYang did, or go abroad. If somebody listens to English, speak English, and writeEnglish every day or even every hour, every minute constantly, how can’t he get tohave a stronger English insight? When he writes a word, or a sentence, he can correct iteven before he thinks it out, for he has already possessed the ability of self-monitor.

  But this method is not realistic for most Chinese students now in China, for it needstoo much money which is beyond their family economic condition. So I suggeststudents to read classic passages as often as possible. They also can memorize somewonderful sentences as well, or they can memorize some regular sentences as well.

  For example:

  急盼回复——We are expecting your prompt reply.

  请您在方便时及时回复——kindly let us have your reply at your earliestconvenience.

  Nowadays, many passages need this kind of regulating expressions. So if we canmemorize them then, we can write in a more English way.

  I strongly suggest that, students who are worrying about writing Chinglish toconceit some famous and classic passage in the history. For example: I Have a Dream;Give Me liberty, or Give Me Death; If I Were a Boy Again.

  These passages are full of exquisite words and truth, satisfying the mind, andappealing to the heart. If we can recite some of them; our ability of writing will easilybe improved. Andraw D. Cohen also suggested that literature regarding explicit strategycan strengthen students’ language insights.

  There are many ways to improve our writing level and avoid Chinglish if we work hard andacquire some skills. “Where there is a will there is a way” as the saying goes.

6. Conclusion 

  Due to the differences in customs, life and language habits, Chinese students havesome difficulties in writing genuine English. And Chinglish in college English writingis widely seen from the meta-cognitive point and language point; we find many validmeasures to avoid it. For example, as to the teachers, they can use self-foreseeing andstimulant teaching courses to help the students play an active role in the class in steadof always being passive. When it comes to the students, they can take some exercise tostrengthen their English insight. Such as conceiting and reading. In one word, if wework hard, Chinglish in college writing won’t be a problem any longer.

References

  [1] Andraw D. Cohen. Strategies in Learning and Using Second Language [M]. Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2000 

  [2] Dechert, H. W.&Raupach, M.(Eds) Transfer in Language Production[M]. Norwood,NJ: Ablex, 1989 

  [2] Joan Pinkham. The Translator’s Guide to Chinglish [M]. Foreign LanguageTeaching and Research Press, 2003 

  [3] Odlin, T. Language Transfer[M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1989 

  [4] Rod Ellis.Eugence. Language, Culture, and Translating [M] 2003  

  [5] 陈三东.高职高专英语教学中“中式英语”的对策浅析[J]. 广东交通职业技术学院学报 2005 第六期 

  [6] 丁往道&吴冰 英语写作手册 北京:外语教育与研究出版社 

  [7] 桂诗春.认知与语言[M]. 外语教育与研究 1992 第三期 

  [8] 桂诗春.认知与外语学习[M]. 外语教育与研究 1991 第四期 

  [9] 胡 敏.这样学习英语最有效[J]. 新航道突围英语丛书 1999 

  [10] 马 跃 学生语料库在第二语言习得研究中的作用[M]. 上海:上海外语教育社 2001 

  [11] 俞理明.语言迁移与二语习得[M]. 上海:上海外语教育社 2003 

  [12] 杨 歆.从文化生活及语言习惯差异浅谈中式英语现象 南京工程学[J].2002第一期 

  [13] 周海中&刘少龙.元认知与二语结构[M]. 上海:上海外语教育社 2001 

  [14] 周丽鹃.中式英语搭配错误十例[N]. 科学探讨 2004 第十期 

  [15] 赵世开.基于认知的英汉对比研究[M]. 上海:上海外语教育社 2001 

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