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弗米尔目的论下BBC财经新闻的翻译实践

发布时间:2019-06-10
  摘要
  
  近年来,伴随着资本市场、金融市场以及投资市场的不断发展,财经新闻已经成为报纸杂志、电视新闻等报道的主流内容,覆盖股票、基金、期货、外汇、债券等。因此,英语财经新闻成为人们了解世界经济最前沿动态的主要方式之一。而财经新闻的翻译质量也直接影响着读者的阅读效果。但是英语财经新闻的翻译有别于其他类型的翻译,有着自己鲜明的特征,如时效性、准确性和专业性。而且中西方文化存在差异,这都给翻译工作带来了巨大挑战。

弗米尔目的论下BBC财经新闻的翻译实践
  
  本实践报告研究的是英语财经新闻的翻译,笔者选取的是 2017 年 6 月到 2018 年 3 月 BBC 财经新闻作为翻译材料。在弗米尔目的论的指导下,笔者从词汇和语句两个角度,分析了各种翻译技巧和方法在此次实践中的应用,如直译、引申原义、注释法、顺译法、逆译法和拆译法,解决了关于一些专业术语、专有名词、具有引申意义的词汇和某些长难句的翻译问题。在此次翻译过程中,笔者尽力克服不同文化差异带来的障碍,根据读者需要,选择合适的翻译技巧和方法,以保证信息的有效传播。希望此翻译实践报告能为类似文本翻译提供参考和借鉴。
  
  关键词:  财经新闻翻译;目的论;翻译技巧和方法。
  
  Abstract
  
  In recent years, with the development of capital markets, financial markets and investment markets, financial news has become the mainstream in the newspapers,magazines and television news coverage, covering stocks, funds, futures, foreign exchange, bonds, etc. Therefore, English financial news has become one of the most significant ways for people to understand the latest economic dynamics across the world. Moreover, the translation quality of English financial news directly influences the target language readers. But the translation of English financial news is different from other types of translation and has its distinctive features such as timeliness,accuracy and professionalism. And differences between Chinese and Western cultures have brought great challenges to translation work.
  
  This report focuses on the translation of English financial news. The author chooses the BBC financial news reported from June 2017 to March 2018 as a source of translated text. With Vermmer’s Skopos theory as a theoretical guide, the author analyzes various translation methods and skills applied to translation at lexical and syntactic levels, including literal translation, extension of original meaning,annotation, synchronizing, reversing and splitting. Using these ways, the author has solved such translation problems, for instance terminology, proper nouns, some vocabularies having extension meaning and long and complex sentences. The author tries her best to overcome obstacles brought by different cultures and choose appropriate translation methods and skills according to target language readers’demands, so that the information is communicated. It is hoped that this translation report can provide a reference for similar text translation.
  
  Key words:  financial news translation; Skopos theory; translation skills and methods。
  
  Chapter One Introduction
  
  This chapter macroscopically introduces background and significance of the study, and task requirements of this translation report. The purpose is to make readers understand the outline of the report.
  
  1.1 Background of the Study。
  
  Financial news is inseparably related to our daily lives. As economy develops, the importance of financial news has become increasingly prominent. It is no longer the patent of a professional newspaper, but belonging to many different kinds of newspapers and media. “Financial News” is no longer a narrow sense of concepts such as finance, economics, bonds,and funds ,but rather a relatively broad “economic news” ,including politics, economics, finance,companies, and economic review, some of which relate to macroeconomic policies of countries and people’s daily lives. With the development of globalization, China’s trade exchange with other countries around the world has become more and more frequent, especially with the western economies. China has become an indispensable part of the World, and more and more Chinese people start to focus on the world economy. Thus the translation of English-language financial news turns into an extremely significant way of our understanding of trends of economic development in the rest of the world. That also immediately influences Chinese audience.
  
  The translation project is selected from the financial news coverage on the BBC website as a source of translated text. BBC, the largest broadcaster in the UK, is also one of the most authoritative news broadcasters in the world. It can vividly and uniquely describe the cutting-edge dynamics in various fields of the world,especially its financial column, and can provide readers with a lot of real and valuable information. It is often required reading for financiers and professionals, as well as decision making for figures in corporate and political circles. In a word, its financial news is most typical, representative and professional, and has great study value.
  
  The author chooses the BBC financial news reported from June 2017 to March 2018 as a source of translated text, a total of 23 reports, which include financial news and editorials.
  
  Because financial news coverage has its own text features, translators should pay attention to its special requirements for translating. As a result, translators play a major role in the process of translation. The author believes it is necessary to thoroughly study the financial news reported by authoritative organizations to find out the translation methods and skills that are appropriate for Chinese audience.
  
  1.2 Significance of the Study。
  
  The BBC financial news has more extensive influence in the world. It reports a great deal of information in the financial sector such as accounting, commerce, bonds, foreign exchange,property markets, and stock markets every day. However, because of the limitations of various complex subjective and objective factors, a lot of valuable information reported in the BBC financial column is not immediately accessible to Chinese readers. Sometimes, target language audience will even be misled to make wrong decisions because of misinformation. Obviously,translator’s role in the Chinese translation process is very important. Therefore, knowing well the language features of financial news will help translators understand the contents of the English financial news coverage. In the process of translation, translators could choose appropriate translation skills and methods in terms of target language readers’ demands. Moreover, playing a role as a bridge, translators will help more and more people know about the information around the world. Through this practice, the author hopes to give much valuable information to Chinese audience and to summarize some translation experience that can provide a reference for similartext translation.
  
  1.3 Task Requirements。
  
  The translation purpose of English financial news is always to serve for the target audience.In terms of news dissemination, target language readers are the recipient of news information and the objects of news communication. Without readers, there is no news. Without readers,news communication will lose its significance. As a result, the translation of English news more concerns about the target language readers, namely Chinese audience in this report.
  
  Financial news is a kind of news genre that reflects important financial and current affairs. The translation of financial news must focus on its features of timeliness, accuracy and professionalism. Timeliness is mainly based on the characteristics of the news itself. Global financial affairs are changing quickly, and the translation of old financial news is of little use. According to its strong professionals, it must be translated accurately. This puts forward higher demands for the professional background of the translators. From the perspective of Skopos theory, one of the most important factors determining the purpose of translation is the audience. Therefore, translators should consider communicative purpose of translation to translate original texts so as to achieve unity between faithfulness and expressiveness. Translators should keep responsible attitudes towards translation, and pay attention to target language readers’ responds and translation version effect.
  
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  Chapter Two Language Features of Financial News
  

  2.1 Lexical Features of Financial News
  2.2 Syntactic Features of Financial News
  
  Chapter Three Theoretical Framework
  
  3.1 Skopos Theory
  3.1.1 The Skopos Rule
  3.1.2 The Coherence Rule
  3.1.3 The Fidelity Rule
  3.2 Skopos Theory’s Guiding Role in the Translation of Financial News
  
  Chapter Four Case Studies
  
  4.1 Vocabulary Translation
  4.1.1 Literal Translation
  4.1.2 Extension of Original Meaning
  4.1.3 Annotation
  4.2 Sentence Translation
  4.2.1 Synchronizing
  4.2.2 Reversing
  4.2.3 Splitting

  Chapter Five Conclusion

  English financial news is a kind of news genre. It has such commonness as the objectivity,timeliness and authenticity of English news and also has its own uniqueness, which shows its features of words and sentences. After analyzing the individual features of English financial news, this report introduces Vermeer’s theory of translation as a theoretical guidance. Because financial news belongs to functional that emphasizes readers’ responses, which coincides with its focus on final purpose in skopos. This report uses Skopos theory as the macro-theoretical framework, the core idea of Skopos theory is: the intended purpose or function of the translation determines the translation methods. It emphasized that both the source language readers and the target language readers can obtain the equivalent valid information. That is, both the source text and the translation can have the same effect on the readers. Skopos theory pays attention to functional equivalence. In actual translation process, the translator can flexibly adapt to the target language culture and use specific translation methods to reproduce the source text.

  The author analyzes the features of English financial news about words and sentences,combining three translation principles in Skopos theory to sum up some practical skills andmethods.

  First of all, vocabulary translation: The most significant features of English financial news are accuracy and readability. In the process of translation, translators must accurately translate professional vocabularies that are unique to financial news. Many financial terminologies and proper nouns are often literally translated. Sometimes translators must combine context and extend the original meaning if not using the method of literal translation. The use of annotation to explain some acronyms are used in the translation process. At the same time, translators must have digital awareness because there are a lot of economic data in financial news. The more refined these data is, the more authoritative they are. To engage in financial news translation,translators should be sensitive to numbers and be proficient in various Chinese and English expressions and conversion skills. The translation of phrases and small words must also be combined with contexts in Chinese translation.

  In the next place, sentences translation: Financial news statements are generally divided into two major categories: one is simple sentence, and the other is long sentence. For the former's translation, translators should pay attention to the tense in the source sentence when translating into Chinese, according to the proper expression of context. For the latter translation, a sub-total method should be adopted. That is: first understand the exact meaning of each clause in long difficult sentences, then sort out the specific logical relationship, and finally recombine each clause.

  In addition, the author’s comprehensive quality has been greatly improved:

  Firstly, the ability to transform language has been improved. Because doing a good job in financial news, translators must have sufficient bilingual translation capabilities, both theoretically and practically. In terms of theory, translators need to be familiar with thedifferences between English and Chinese languages, including hypotaxis and parataxis, active and passive, abstract and concrete, indirect and direct, dynamic and static, and understand various aspects of translation methods and skills, such as splitting, merging, etc. In this translation practice, the author precisely combines theory with practice, correctly selects the meaning of words in the specific translation process, and skillfully handles difficult sentences and improves bilingual translation ability.

  Secondly, comprehensive quality has been improved. The author deeply feels that translators must not only have good language literacy, but also have extensive knowledge. Translators must not only understand the basic knowledge of the economy, but also have an understanding of the reported areas. Before translating financial news, the author also read a large number of parallel texts, listened to lectures by some economic majors and watched a lot of TV financial commentaries to sum up her own experiences.

  Thirdly, the text proofing ability has been improved. Before the practice of translation, the author believes that the proofreading of the translated text is a single self-reflection and self-correction. However, in the process of translation, the author realizes that the translation text proofing is actually an open process and should have the thinking of “jumping out” and “going back”. When translating an unknown word, translators should read other similar English news coverage, and may find inspiration in the world of the original language.

  At last, political quality has been improved. Financial news translators should have a strong sense of political responsibility, news sensitivity and professional ethics. Thus, in the process of translation, translators must focus on the objective and fair selection and processing of valuable financial information in massive economic information.

  The above is the conclusions of the author’s translation experience. The author hopes to improve abilities for translation practice in the future and help other English learners and news translators. Because the author’s own level of translation is limited, the study of translation theory should be further strengthened and practical activities should be improved so as to thrive to go further on the road to translation.

  References

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