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《摩西五书》中民族领袖摩西人物分析

发布时间:2019-04-19
  Abstract
  
  The Pentateuch is the first five books of Holy Bible which is believed to have been compiled by Moses. In these five books, there is a remarkable figure, namely Moses, thenational leader. Moses is a liberator of Israel people. He is mainly characterized by loneliness,bravery, and devotion. This thesis seeks to analyze Moses as a national leader in the Pentateuch. The main research methods of the thesis are document research and close reading.
  
  It is composed of three chapters, besides Introduction and Conclusion.
  
  Chapter One studies the tragicomic hero. Moses is unique. He is both potent and lonely.This chapter reveals Moses’ paradoxical character and good quality. The fact that he fails to enter Canaan vividly reflects the original sin. According to scientific Marxism, one big disadvantage of his is to neglect people’s benefit—based relationship.Chapter Two analyzes Moses as an audacious conductor. With a strong desire to serve Israel people, he acts bravely. Moses’ words can be analyzed from three aspects: doughty dialogues with Pharaoh, arguments with YHWH, speaking for Israel people.

《摩西五书》中民族领袖摩西人物分析
  
  Chapter Three probes into the fundamental quality of Moses—sacrificial or dedicated spirit. He is thoughtful when dealing with national affairs. He devotes time and energy toserving Israel people and does correct appointments. The fact that Moses appoints chiefs of tens, fifties and so on shows his excellent leadership. Moses who is pure and simple has made enormous contribution to Israel. Given Moses’ good performances, Israel people consider him as the greatest prophet.
  
  Moses is a good leader. Although the Jewish is even more uncompromising, forbidding,Moses leads the nation into freedom and welfare. Moses’ deeds make his people active. Hiscontribution is helpful to the development of politics. The political rules enable Israel people to live better. His action reflects heroism which shall be carried forward. This is positive aspect. At the same time, we shall keep a critical eye on him. In accordance with Marxism the hero is just the representative of the people. Definitely Moses can’t be a hero without the existence of Israel people. The key to success is to trust in the people.
  
  Key Words:   Moses;shepherd;lawgiver;national leader
  
  摘 要
  
  《摩西五书》是圣经的前五本书,被人们认为系摩西所着。在这一部分中,有一个显着的人物,即民族领袖摩西。摩西是以色列人的解放者。他的主要性格特点是孤独,勇敢,奉献。本论文将分析摩西这个民族领袖。主要的研究方法包括文献研究和文本细读二法。
  
  论文除了引言与结论外,共分三章。
  
  第一章分析悲喜交加的英雄摩西。摩西的性格具有独特性:他既本领超群,又寂寞孤单。本章揭示了摩西矛盾的身份和良好的品格。他未能踏入迦南的事实应验了原罪说。按照马克思主义政治科学理论,摩西的一大弱点是忽视人们之间的利益关系。
  
  第二章指出摩西是一个大胆的指导者。他怀抱着一个强烈的为以色列人们服务的愿望,勇敢地行动起来。该章从三个方面分析摩西:与法老的大胆对话,同上帝的争执,为以色列人说情。
  
  第三章探讨摩西的重要品质—奉献精神。他处理起民族事务来认真负责,把时间和精力都花在为人们服务上,还做出正确的任命。摩西任命十夫长、五十夫长等行为彰显出他高超的领导水平。单纯的他为以色列做出了巨大贡献。鉴于他出色的表现,以色列人公认他是最伟大的先知。
  
  摩西是位出色的领导。尽管以色列人是不易妥协的,桀骜不驯又令人生畏,摩西引领他们走向自由、幸福、安宁。摩西的行为让以色列人活跃起来。他的贡献对政治的发展有益。以色列人接受政治规定的行为决定了他们更有可能生活地好些。摩西的英雄主义行为应该传承下来。这是积极的方面。同时我们也要用批评的眼光看待这个人物。根据马克思主义的观点,英雄是人民的代表。可以肯定地是,没有人民的存在,摩西不可能成为英雄。成功的关键在于相信人民。
  
  关键词:  摩西;牧羊人;立法者;民族领袖。
  
  Introduction
  
  Heroic persons must have great deeds, like Moses. He is independent, brave and dedicated. The Pentateuch (including Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy) in Holy Bible is normally said to have been written by Moses. It was said that he was born in about BC 1527 and was educated at the Temple of the Sun because there was a universitywhere the princes and the sons of high officials grew up. He lived around 120 years and led Israel people escape from misery and suffering. Definitely he is not pathological. It is the father image that Moses typifies for the Jews. He always has profound insight. He is regarded as the closest man to YHWH before Jesus. He perfects legal system, promotes the development of politics and arouses people’s heroism. When talking about Moses’ life,people can not avoid the topics of escape from Egypt and march for Canaan, so does theauthor. This great action is experienced by Moses. Moses has undergone several major changes, including ups and downs. His identity has changed from slave to the prince ofEgypt, then down to the fugitive, and next has risen to the YHWH’s selection, who has led the Israelite to leave Egypt and becomes a national leader. From the perspective of social reality, he is the secular authority, known as the greatest prophet of Israel. The foundation of Israel history started from his national leadership in Egypt and ended with the immigration to Palestine. He achieves individual social value, and is an image of heroic national leader prototype, although he lacks psychological and spiritual readiness to conquer the promised land. If we look at Moses from the perspective of the world literary image, we can see the significance of this image, because valuable characters are basically reflected in two aspects:ideology and arts. In the west, from the perspective of social reality, Moses is the authority of the common people, known as the greatest prophet of Israel. From the aspect of the social value of the individual, he is a hero image prototype.
  
  An increasing number of scholars and researchers have been devoted to the study about Moses. Philo, ancient Rome philosopher who symbolizes the combination of Hellenism andJewish cultures, revealed Jews’ life in Egypt and their escape from Egypt and praised Moses’heroic deeds, and wrote Exposition of the Law. In On Moses’ Life, he highly appreciated Moses’ “precise judgment”. From his view, Moses is almost regarded as a philosopher.
  
  Cellay Scheer committed himself to doctrines in political events experienced by Moses in Statesman Moses and the Judge Moses. Modekai Losiwald demonstrates Moses’ duty ispolitical function and religious moral task in Moses—Ideal National Leader. Austria psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud who is a scientist between natural and social sciences wrotethe book Moses and Monotheism (1955) and got the conclusion that Moses was an Egyptian and his religion given to the Jews was brought from Egypt.
  
  An objective proof of the period into which the life of Moses, and with it the exodus from Egypt, fall would perhaps have sufficed. But his has not been forthcoming, andtherefore it will be better to suppress any inferences that might follow our view that Moses was an Egyptian.
  
  Aaron B. Wildavsky reckoned Moses as a great political leader in his book The Nursing Father: Moses as a Political Leader in 1984. John H. Hayes suggested “the direct historical approach” in his A History of Ancient Israel and Judah (1986). In 1999, David Baron co-published with Lynette Padwa Moses on Management, giving readers 50 lessons from the greatest manager of all time. In 2001, Gary Greenberg wrote The Bible Myth the African Origins of the Jewish People, in which “origin of Judaism”is discussed. From above, the author may define Moses as a prophet of religion and a pioneer of national leader. Moses is above all a man of strong opinions, who pursues justice, decency and equality in all his life.
  
  He is against totalitarianism. Without doubt, these books tell us that Moses is a true great national hero.
  
  Some works are written on the topic of The Pentateuch or the Bible. Goodness,reverence, violence, fear, degeneration, despair, doubt, numbness, calmness and so on are included. In 1997, The State of the Pentateuch was published by Wynn Williams and Damian J. Books. In 2005, Mr Davis published Introduction to Biblical Literature. In the same year,Logan Marshall published the Wonder Book of Bible Stories. In 2011,Christo Lombaard published The mystifying mosaic Moses: On Pentateuch theory and Biblical spirituality. Inthe same year, Pierfrancesco La Mura delivered Astronomical Dating and the Internal Chronology of the Pentateuch. In 2015, The World of the Bible was written by John Drane. Inconclusion, the Bible is the classic of western culture and the Pentateuch is the most important part in the Bible.
  
  In this thesis, heroism will be an inevitable part to be touched upon when the writer is talking about values. Therefore, let us briefly look at some articles about this subject. In 1996,Strategy, Information and Heroism: Lessons from the Past Strategic Change was published by D.E. Hussey.It gives careful thoughts about heroism and information. In 2008, Dr.Mehmet Yilmaz published “Heroism Age of Kirghiz/Kirgiz Kahramanlik A I” in Turkish Studies, in which “functions of male and female protagonists and their social roles” are discussed.
  
  Douglas M.Stenstrom and Mathew Curtis wrote “Heroism and Risk of Harm” in Psychology in 2012, in which heroic qualities are “investigated” and “the risk of potentialharm” is proposed.This part reveals to us that heroism includes life direction and sublime beauty. Heroism is longed for by many people.
  
  In China related studies are flourishing. Tang Shiwen’s thesis Moses’ National Leadership Style points out that Moses shows the image of YHWH in many ways from theperspective of a great national leader. In 2002, Yu Yuhe and Tu Zhifeng co-published “The Influence of Contract Thought of the Pentateuch on Modern Capitalist Law” on NankaiUniversity Law Review. In September, 2005, Qiu Yongxu wrote “A Study of the Narrative Time of the Pentateuch” in Journal of Sichuan Teachers College. Chang Dandan wroteResearch on the Image of Moses in 2007, in which Moses was described as representative of Israel national spirit. Moreover, the conflict between YHWH and Moses is explained. BaoYong published his thesis The Interpretation of the Exodus and Moses. He begins from Moses’ fancy experience and talks about Moses’ awakening in the process of growing. ZhuWeizhi who has made outstanding achievements in the field of biblical study is a pioneer taking the study of Holy Bible as a literary work. He edited Twelve Lectures on Biblical。
  
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  Introduction
 
  
  Chapter One The Tragicomic National Leader

  
  A. Tragic Birth and Unforeseen Surviva
  B. The Deserving Sinner and Humorous Deeds
  C. Preparation for National Leadership
  
  Chapter Two The Audacious Conductor
  
  A. Equality-based Dialogues with Pharaoh
  B. Brave Argument with YHWH .
  C. Togetherness with Israel People
  
  Chapter Three The Meaningful Guide .
  
  A. Devoting Time and Energy to the Israelite.
  B. Setting up a Model of Military Leader for Israel People
  C. Guiding Israel People All His Life

  Conclusion

  The most important event in the Pentateuch is the Exodus led by Moses, in which he leads people out of Egypt and sets up laws for Israel people. The story is still inspiring andaffecting for Jews of many generations. Whether or not there is Moses, his laws have become an important part of Jewish Literature. The Jews, originally called Hebrews, are later referred to as the Israelite. The appellation itself is the result of cultural change. Moses’ everlasting id represents who he is and that he is forever, since he is a heroic national leader. The cultural norms based on the Ten Commandments enable Judaism to become the so-called mother religion of Christianity. His laws which record systematic Jewish cultural norms are Torah,or the Pentateuch, regarded as classics of Judaism.

  Moses is a very eye-catching character. Talking from the humanistic perspective, Moses is a secular national leader who localizes and systematizes foreign culture. His fame andreputation spread throughout Europe with the circulation of Christianity. Today, more than three thousand years after Moses’ death, he still receives the Jewish people's respect and esteem. He is worshipped by Christians as “premonition of Christ”, and even many atheists are also infected by Moses’ spirit.

  Moses is a tragicomic character: he, who is so eager to help his people, now is resisting the opportunity to fulfill his dream. Moses is YHWH's messenger and spokesperson,overlooking human beings with compassion. Moses’ roles of priest and prophet in the Pentateuch demonstrate his divinity. Amazingly, in the ancient times, prophet and priest aretwo meaningful jobs, no less important than the king. Because they are chosen by YHWH,they are most closely linked with YHWH.

  With the two statuses, priest and prophet, Moses enjoys a special position in the history of Israel nation. The priest performs miracles, and the prophet speaks for YHWH. Moses is a combination of the two. What he does has the divine mark. From Moses’ life, readers and listeners can see he is a complex of real person and magical character. His deeds have a strong legendary color. His identity is diverse and his character is a bit complex. In some cases contradictory qualities are shown. Besides his personal fate shows aesthetic characteristics of sadness and joy; his relationship with YHWH and the people of Israel are characterized by uncontrolled contradiction. In fact, the paradox embodied in Moses is not the only case. This paradox exists in biblical figures commonly. Nevertheless, Moses is a great national leader.

  It is incomplete to deny Moses’ role. The reasons are as followings: Firstly, Moses is an Israel people’s national leader and controller of reality. The life of virtue demands grandeur and profundity. Only less than five hundred years from the birth of Moses, he is revered by all Jews. Since then, his fame and popularity have spread throughout Europe as Christianity spreads. More than 3000 years after Moses’ death, he is still respected by Israel people.

  Secondly, in fact, he never considers himself great or wise. He is modest perhaps because complacency is a drawback to progress. He is different from some people who considerthemselves as supermen. Thirdly, Moses’ id is totally unconscious. His ego is significant to the balance of personality structure and contributes to the equilibrium of ego and superego.

  People’s loudest praises have been saved for individuals who make the ultimate sacrifice.Fourthly, performances of Moses must conform to the inevitable trend of the times, which is the basic standpoint of Marx’s historic view to evaluate heroes. By this way, his intelligence and courage are shown. The Israel nation is awakening! Heroism emanated from Moses needs to be carried forward.

  Bibliography .

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