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石黑一雄《远山淡影》中的时空结构研究

发布时间:2019-07-29
  摘 要

  石黑一雄是荣获诺贝尔文学奖的日裔英国作家,与鲁西迪、奈保尔被称为“英国文坛移民三雄”,也被《泰晤士报》列为“1945 年以来英国最伟大的 50 位作家”之一。1982 年出版的处女作《远山淡景》一经发表便大获好评,并获温尼弗雷德·霍尔比奖。更是为他之后文学作品叙事风格的形成奠定了基础。“记忆”可以说是贯穿于这部小说的创作始终。主人公借助不可靠的回忆叙述来重新审视过往化解身份危机。石黑一雄如何通过时空叙事这样一种策略对小说进行书写是本文的研究重点。引言部分主要介绍石黑一雄的生活背景和写作生涯,详细阐述国内外对石黑一雄作品的研究现状,尤其是对《远山淡影》的研究。在界定与介绍本文所采用的理论“时空叙事”后,提出本文的立论思路及创新性。第一章是从叙事学的角度来分析《远山淡影》中的时空结构特征。小说打破了传统的线性时空结构,以时空交错式结构赋予作品更深刻、更复杂的主题意味以及别样的审美意味。第二章是叙事时空的建构与留白表现手法。通过对叙事时空的建构艺术的分析,探讨出女主人公不可靠叙事背后的隐晦和暗示。并从文本的时间和空间两个层面进行挖掘,进而更深入地探析《远山淡影》在时间上的推进与空间上的结构。第三章探讨《远山淡影》历史叙事中的个人经验与虚构叙事的交叉。法国当代着名哲学家保罗·利科的《时间与叙事》对时间性问题做出了较为重要的分析,依据保罗·利科的叙事理论来探讨《远山淡影》中的时空叙事,尤其是历史叙事中个人经验与虚构叙事的交叉,虚构叙事的时间塑形以及打破时空界限等。

石黑一雄《远山淡影》中的时空结构研究
  
  关键词:  石黑一雄,远山淡影,时空叙事。
  
  Abstract
  
  Kazuo Ishiguro, a Japanese British writer who won Nobel Prize in Literature, is known as one of “the three most prominent immigrant writers” parallelingSalman Rushdie and V. S. Naipaul, also as one of “Britain's greatest 50 writers since 1945” listed in the Times. His debut A Pale View of Hills was published in 1982 and won Winifred Holtby Memorial Prize, which lays the foundation for the formation of the narrative style in his later literary works. It can be said that “memory” is a consistent theme of all the compositions of Kazuo Ishiguro. The protagonist re-examines her past and resolve the identity crisis through unreliable memorial narrative. This research will focus on how Kazuo Ishiguro wrote the novel through time-space narrative. The introduction gives a review on the author's life background and the main content of A Pale View of Hills, as well as literature review home and abroad, especially the study of A Pale View of Hills. This part will put forward the idea and innovation of this paper after defining and introducing the theory of “time and space narrative”. Chapter one analyzes the features of time-space structure in A Pale View of Hills from the perspective of narratology. In this novel, Kazuo Ishiguro breaks the traditional linear time-space structure, giving the work a deeper and more complex theme and different aesthetic meanings in a time-space interlaced structure.
  
  Chapter two is the construction of narrative time and space. Through the analysis of the art of construction of narrative time and space, this chapter attempts to explore the obscurity and hint behind the unreliable narrative of the heroine. Moreover, the advancement of time and space structure of A Pale View of Hills is also explored according to the time-space structure of the text. Chapter three focuses on the intersection of historical narrative and fictional narrative in A Pale View of Hills. This chapter will utilize Paul Ricoeur's narrative theory to explore time and space narrative in this novel, especially the intersection of personal experience of historical narrative and fictional narrative, the time configuration in fictional narrative and thebreakthrough in the boundary of time and space.
  
  Key words:    Kazuo Ishiguro; A Pale View of Hills; time and space narrative。
  
  Introduction
 
  
  Kazuo Ishiguro and A Pale View of Hills。

  
  Kazuo Ishiguro is the winner of Nobel Prize in literature in 2017, is known as one of “the three most prominent immigrant writers” paralleling Salman Rushdie and V. S. Naipaul, also reputed to be one of “The 50 Greatest British Writers Since 1945”listed in the Times. Since he began to become popular in the 1980s, he has been favored by major international awards.
  
  1. Kazuo Ishiguro and His Literary Career。
  

  Kazuo Ishiguro (1954- ) is a Japanese British writer who was born in Nagasaki, Japan in 1954. He immigrated to England with his parents when he was only 5 years old. He did not return to visit Japan until 1989, nearly 30 years later, as a participant in the Japan Foundation Short-Term visitors Program. Actually what he wrote in his novels about Japan of that time mostly origins from the descriptions of his parents and old Japanese films. Young Ishiguro was much more interested in music, especial rock music. After graduating from high school, Ishiguro went on a long journey abroad,and was also a percussionist with Queen Mother Band in Balmoral. Later he studied English and Philosophy in University of Kent. Ishiguro worked for several years as a social worker after graduating from university, which is a special experience that is very useful for his literary composition in the future. And then he began studying creative writing as a postgraduate student in University of East Anglia in England,where Ishiguro meet his supervisor Angela Carter who is a well-known feminist novelist and gave him a lot of inspirations.
  
  Kazuo Ishiguro is good at creating his own literary world in the subtle points of memory, time and self-deception. It can be said that “memory” is a consistent theme throughout the composition of Kazuo Ishiguro. Most of Ishiguro's works are based on the hero's memories. The memories are presented with forgetting, loss and pursuit.
  
  Ishiguro admits that he is interested in people's memory, so he has been exploring the memory and forgetting of individuals, the whole society and the whole country.
  
  Despite of his bi-cultural identity, the theme of his works are diverse with both British humor and Japanese aesthetic. He does not pay attention to the disaster of a specific country or nation. Instead, he tries to explore the inner feelings of people in the revolution, which is full of humanistic care. Meanwhile, his works contain profound ideology and international perspectives. “Even to a reader with a highly retentive memory who reads the book at one sitting the significance of what is earlier revealed is not available until a second reading on which the novel will read like a new novel about familiar people.”(Brian W. Shaffer,1998:11) As a postmodern writer, Ishiguro's first work appears mature in his narrative skills. His language is light, delicate,restraint and blank-leaving, which often conveys the points in the complex secular difficulty and make readers have deep thinking. Ishiguro's obsession with the film constitutes an important part of his writing style.
  
  In 1989, Kazuo Ishiguro won Man Booker Prize which is a well-known prize in English literature. He is famous for exquisite writing style. Almost every novel has been nominated or awarded prizes, and his works have been translated into twenty eight languages. Ishiguro was famous as immigrant writer with Salman Rushdie and V.S. Naipaul in the literary world when he was young. But he called himself “internationalist writer”. He was awarded to a knight decoration of literary by the British royalty and awarded the Medal of French Arts and Literature. Despite the dual cultural background of Japan and Britain, Kazuo Ishiguro is one of the few Asian writers who are not specialized in the theme about immigrant or national identity.
  
  Even though critics are always trying to find the magic of Japanese culture in his novels or rake out traces of post-colonial theory, the fact is that Ishiguro has never deliberately manipulated Asian ethnic identity. Instead, he claims himself to be an internationalist writer. For Kazuo Ishiguro, novel is an internationalized literary carrier. How to break geographical boundaries and write a book that is significant for people from different cultural backgrounds in an increasingly globalized modern world, which is the goal he has been working hard on. Therefore, his writing style is quite different from that of Salman Rushdie and V. S. Naipaul.
  
  In his three decades of literary career, he has composed seven novels, A Pale View of Hills (1982), An Artist of the Floating World (1986), The Remains of the Day (1989), The Unconsoled (1995), When We Were Orphans (2000), Never Let Me Go (2005), The Buried Giant (2015), several screenplays, including A Profile of Arthur J. Mason (Television film for Channel 4)(1984), The Gourmet (Television film for Channel 4) (1987), The Saddest Music in the World (2003), The White Countess (2005), as well as some short fictions. His debut novel of “A Pale View of Hills” was published in 1982 and won Winifred Holtby Memorial Prize in the next year, laying the foundation for formation of the narrative style in his later literary works. His second novel An Artist of the floating World makes him repute as one of the most promising writers of English language at that time. His works is not only received favorably by readers, but also reputed by critics. Salman Rushdie comments that just below the understatement of the novel's surface is turbulence as immense as it is slow.(Brian W. Shaffer, 1998: 10)

       2. APale View of Hills
  
  A Pale View of Hills is the debut of Kazuo Ishiguro, a masterpiece that is still being reprinted since it was published in 1982. Through the early memory inNagasaki of a Japanese widow who immigrates to the United Kingdom later, the novel tells that she and her daughter long for stability and new life in post-war Nagasaki, but she still cannot get out of the shadow the war brings. Although finally they emigrate successfully, her daughter commits suicide. This novel is peculiar and the memories of the narrator are vague and suspicious. In the end of this book, the narrator forgets to disguise herself so that it can be confirmed the conjecture that the narrator utilizes the memory as a cover. The narrator Etsuko makes up stories of others in the memory to cover the truth that she cannot face and tries to lessen her sense of guilt. However, it does not specify the reason why the protagonist's daughter commits suicide in the whole novel. Instead, it focuses on the choice whether she should have emigrated or not. The core of this book is not the post-war trauma, but the inner guilt and remorse of human beings.
  
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  Literature Review
  
  Purposes and Significance
  
  Chapter One The Features of Time-space Structure
  
  1.1 Time-space Interlaced Structure: Thematic and Aesthetic Meanings

  1.1.1 Narrative Rhythm and Thematic Meanings
  1.1.2 Time-SpaceAesthetics and Japanese TraditionalAesthetics
  
  1.2 The Relationships Constructed in the Time-space Structure
  1.2.1 The Divided Self.
  1.2.2 Inter-generational Relationship and Conflicts.
  1.2.3 The Metaphor of Interpersonal Relationship.
  1.2.4 The Change of Interpersonal Relationship in Historical Time and Space
  
  1.3 The Time-Space Narrative Inspired by Film Narrative: Spatial Turn
  
  Chapter Two The Construction of Narrative Time and Space.
  
  2.1 The Construction of Narrative Time
  
  2.2 The Construction of Narrative Space.

  2.2.1 Gender and Space
  2.2.2 The Urban Space.
  
  2.3 The Story Development
  
  2.4 The Blank-leaving
  
  Chapter Three The Intersection of Historical Narrative and Fictional Narrative
  
  3.1 The Intersection of Historical Narrative and Fictional Narrative
  
  3.2 The Intersection of Personal Experience and Fictional Narrative

  3.2.1 Etsuko's Personal Experience: The Emotional Return of Immigrants
  3.2.2 TheAuthor's Personal Experience: Root-seeking.
  
  3.3 The Time Configuration in Fictional Narrative
  
  3.4 The Space Boundary of Fictional Narrative.
  
  3.5 The Breakthrough in the Boundary of Time and Space.

  
  Conclusion

  Acknowledgement

  First and foremost, I appreciate my university which gives me a comfortable learning atmosphere. Second, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to mysupervisor, Professor Xu Shuangru, who has walked me through all the stages of the writing of this thesis. Without her illuminating instruction and patience, this thesis could not have reached its present form. I am also greatly indebted to all my teachers who have helped me to develop the fundamental and essential academic competence.My sincere appreciation also goes to all my classmates, who are my proud of my life.Last but not least, my thanks would go to my beloved family for their loving consideration and great confidence in me all through these years. I also owe my sincere gratitude to all my friends who gave me their help and time in listening to me and helping me work out my problems during the difficult course of the thesis.

  Reference

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