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农村初中英语教学中学困生的转化探析

发布时间:2019-07-12
  中文摘要
  
  众所周知,英语已经成为世界上使用最广泛的语言之一,在各个行业,各个领域都可能需要使用英语。各个学校,各个家长也早已意识到英语学科的重要性,一直都在这一方面不断做出自己的努力。然而,现如今,英语学困生已经是一个非常普遍的问题,这也成为学校,老师,家长,甚至社会特别担忧的问题。
  
  笔者实习的学校是一所农村寄宿制学校,学生的英语学习情况更是不容乐观,每个班里都有很大一部分学困生,但是每个学困生的表现都有所不同,成因也是千差万别。针对此情况,笔者选取了运城市的三所农村初中,在每个学校的初二年级随机选择两个班作为调查对象,研究农村初中英语学困生的表现以及成因。笔者研究的问题主要有三个:(1)农村初中英语学困生的表现有哪些?(2)农村初中英语学困生的成因是什么?(3)转化农村初中英语学困生的措施有哪些?

农村初中英语教学中学困生的转化探析
  
  在研究中,笔者主要使用了问卷调查法和访谈法。学生问卷一共包括三个部分,基本信息,内部因素和外部因素。内部因素包括一些非智力因素,成就动机,认识兴趣,学习焦虑,意志力和好胜心。外部因素涉及教师,家庭,学校以及社会。针对老师的访谈有四个问题,询问农村英语学困生的成因、措施、实施困难以及成功个案。通过问卷和访谈的结果分析,笔者发现:学困生和普通学生在非智力因素和外部条件上有很大的差异,非智力因素和外部原因都或多或少对农村初中英语学困生的形成产生了一定的影响。在理论指导下,笔者提出了一系列针对农村英语学困生的转化措施:不但要解决内部问题,培养学生的英语学习动机,学习兴趣,意志力,好胜心;还要解决外部问题,学校要确保教学管理的正常运行,提升农村初中英语教师的质量,老师要多关心、包容英语学困生,多使用多媒体教学,做到因材施教,家长要给孩子提供物质和精神的双重支持,也要多和老师交流,做好家校配合,同时社会也需要各界努力营造良好的氛围。
  
  由于时间和能力有限,笔者在此研究上还有不足,包括没有将性别和教材因素考虑在内,笔者对之后的研究提出了意见和建议,希望能够真正转化农村初中的英语学困生。
  
  关键词:  英语学困生,农村初中,学困生成因,学困生转化。
  
  Abstract
  
  It is well known that English has become one of the most widely used languages in the world, and it has been used in all fields. All the schools and parents have already been aware of the importance of the English subject and have already made their own efforts in this respect. However, nowadays, students with English learning difficulties has become a very common problem, which has become a special headache for schools, teachers, parents and even the society.
  
  The author’s practice school is a rural boarding school where the English learning situation is also not optimistic, there are a large part of students with English learningdifficulties in each class, but each of them is different, and the causes are also different. In this case, three rural junior middle schools were investigated, and two junior two classes were selected in each school as the subjects to study the features and causes of the students with English learning difficulties. There are three research questions in the thesis: (1) what are the common features of the students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools? (2) what are the causes of the students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools? (3) what are the solutions of the students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools?
  
  In the research, the questionnaire and the interview method were used. The questionnaire for students includes three parts, namely, basic information, internal factors andexternal factors. The internal factors mainly include some non-intellectual factors,achievement motivation, cognition interest, learning anxiety, learning stamina, and winningintention. The external factors mainly include teachers, families, schools and society. There are five main questions about the teachers’ interview. It mainly inquires the causes, measures,successful case and difficulties in the implementation of transforming the students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools. By analyzing the results of questionnaire and interview, it has been found that there are great differences between the students with English learning difficulties and the normal students in both non-intelligence level and external conditions, and both non-intelligence factors and external factors have more or less influence on the formation of the students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools. Then, under the guidance of some theories, a series of transformation measures are put forward for the students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools: on one hand, the internal problems need to be solved, it is required to cultivate the learning motivation, learning interest, willpower, and ambition of the students with English learning difficulties; on the other hand, the external problems need to be solved, the schools should ensure the perfection of teaching management in the schools and improve the quality of English teachers in rural junior middle schools, the teachers should care more about the students with English learning difficulties, treat them inclusively, and the teachers should teach from student to student and use multimedia assisted instruction, for the parents,they should provide both material and spiritual support and communicate in time with the teachers and the schools, and cooperate with the teachers to finish the whole teaching process, and all parts .in the society should make contributions to transforming the students with English learning difficulties.
  
  Due to the limited time and ability, there are still many shortcomings in this research, for example, the gender differences and textbook factors are not been taken into consideration, and suggestions for future research are put forward, hoping to improve the transformation of the students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools.
  
  Key Words:   the students with English learning difficulties, rural junior middle schools, the causes, the countermeasures。
  
  1. Introduction。
  
  With the increasing frequency of international communication and the formation of global village, English has become almost a universal language. Learning English well is notonly a need for short-term improvement, but also a demand for future social development. However, there is a large number of students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools, and their English learning is not so optimistic. Therefore, how to change the current situation of these students has become a subject we must face under the background of quality education.
  
  1.1 The background of the research。
  
  (1) The growing importance of English in national development。

  
  The informationalization of social life and the globalization of the economy make English more and more important. As the most important information carrier, English hasbecome the most widely used language in all fields of human life. In the development strategy of basic education, many countries regard English as an important part of quality education for the citizens and put it in a prominent position. Since the reform and opening up, the scale of English education in China has been expanding, and English education have made remarkable achievements. However, the current situation of English education can’t meet the needs of China’s economic construction and social development, and there is still a gap with the requirements of national development. And for a long time, examination-oriented education, which aims to pursue higher grades, has greatly suppressed the development of many aspects of students’ability, so that a considerable number of students’language learning potential has not been excavated. This model has formed a fact that English education can’t be ignored in primary and secondary schools, especially in rural junior middle schools---there are students with different English learning difficulties in every school and every class.
  
  (2) The popularization of attribution in English education。
  
  Attribution, as a common phenomenon in the second language learning, has been paid more and more attention in English education. English learning is students’ autonomousbehavior, and the pursuit of academic success is a common expectation of learning English. For their English learning achievement, they will put forward or think about corresponding attribution explanation according to their own experiences and feelings; on the other hand, learning helplessness is a common phenomenon in English learning. Therefore, understanding students’ attribution characteristics for English learning, especially the students with English learning difficulties, providing proper English learning attribution, and training their English learning attribution propensity are essential for English teachers to guide and help students’ English learning more effectively and skillfully (Li Sha, 2015).
  
  (3) The requirements of New Curriculum Standard。
  
  According to New Curriculum Standard (2011), the students in junior two are required to achieve the fourth level learning objectives. It says that the students are required to have clear learning goals and strong confidence; the students are required to understand simple dialogue and simple stories, express simple ideas, read simple passages, and so on. It stresses the all-round development of the students (Sun, 2016). However, in the rural junior middle schools, the students, especially the students with English learning difficulties, have a long way to achieve these goals. Most of the students in rural junior middle schools, even they are junior two students, can hardly reach the standard. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the causes of the students with English learning difficulties and put forward countermeasures for them.
  
  (4) The current situation about English learning in the rural junior middle schools。
  
  All of the three junior middle schools in the research are in rural areas, and they are all boarding junior middle schools. There are 249 students in the subject classes (6 classes), and most of them live in the countryside. Because of the poor conditions in the rural areas, there are no English courses in most primary schools and only a small part of students learned a little English in their primary schools. The examinations in most primary schools are only about Chinese and math. Therefore, a large part of students have difficulties in learning English in junior middle schools, so they can’t catch up with the English teachers’ teaching schedule, especially when they are in junior two. Their English learning level is far inferior to the English learning level of the students of the same grade in the cities according to the results of the examinations for the entire cities. So it’s urgent to transform the students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools.
  
  1.2 The purpose and the significance of the research。
  
  1.2.1 The purpose of the research。

  
  Students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools suffer a lot in their English learning, at the same time, they face the same tests pressure with the excellent students. This situation not only seriously influences their English learning and other subjects learning, but also brings great obstacles in English teaching. In order to change this situation, the author carefully analyze the causes of the students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools, and try to find out the corresponding and appropriate countermeasures.
  
  By doing the research, it is hoped to improve the students’ development, change the deviation of teachers’teaching values and teaching methods, and teach students in accordance with their aptitude according to the differences in “learning difficulties”. Teachers can help students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools to cultivate a sound personality, a good character, a correct way of English learning and make a change in the position of “students with English learning difficulties”. A democratic relationship between teachers and students will be established, so that students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools can learn from each others’ strengths and experience the feelings of success, and enjoy a harmonious and upward learning environment, so as to improve teachers’overall teaching quality.
  
  1.2.2 The significance of the research。
  
  The students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools are an objective group that can not be ignored in school education (Han Duhong, 2007). They willbring a lot of trouble to both the teachers’ teaching and themselves. Therefore, it is of great significance to transform the students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools (Jin, 2011).
  
  (1) Satisfying the needs of the students’future development。
  
  The English curriculum standard also emphasizes the importance of English learning. Twenty-first century is the time of interdependent countries and nations. To master a foreignlanguage is the basic requirement for the citizens of the twenty-first century. An important goal of school education is to enable students to learn and master at least one foreign language (Zhang Yujun, 2011). In the long run, if students lack foreign language skills, their future educational choices, career development and employment will be influenced, and it is also not conducive to the development of the country’s politics, economy and technology, nor to the needs of international cooperation and the development of the world economy. Second, the purpose of the foreign language teaching is to prepare students to survive and develop in a diversified global village, and prepare for future information technology innovation. Foreign language learning is of great significance to the promotion of international cooperation, the development in the new century and the maintenance of world peace. It can be seen that the purpose of the research is to promote the all-round development of students, meet the needs of society and transport qualified talents for high schools.
  
  (2) Cultivating students’good psychological quality。
  
  The causes of students with English learning difficulties in rural junior middle schools are various. They may come from students’ schools, teachers, families, or the whole society, but they may also come from students themselves. Some students don’t have a strong learning motivation, some lack self-confidence, others may be influenced by other non-intelligence factors. If their teachers don’t take measures in time, their English learning will become more and more “marginalized”. Therefore, finding out the causes and the countermeasures are essential to help students to cultivate their interests, establish their confidence in English learning, cultivate a good psychological quality, and show a new positive look in their later English learning.
  
  (3) Improving the teaching quality。
  
  This research is of vital importance to both the aged teachers and young teachers in rural junior middle schools. For the aged teachers, they can change their teaching ideas, and realize that transforming the students with English learning difficulties is no less beneficial than cultivating the excellent students in English learning; for the young teachers who always lack teaching experience, they can gain theoretical knowledge and teaching practice as well. Therefore, all the teachers can have a more clear understanding of their students, and transform their students gradually, so that the students can improve their English learning. At the same time, in order to find out the appropriate countermeasures to transform the students with English learning difficulties, the teachers need more sufficient educational psychology, teaching theory, curriculum theory and some other related theories to support their teaching practice during the process. Therefore, they will take the initiative to learn, to study, to enrich themselves, so as to solve the problems in their teaching and raise their teaching level to a new height.
  
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  1.3 The structure of the thesis
  
  2. Literature Review
  
  2.1 Related concepts
  
  2.2 Theoretical basis

  2.2.1 Constructivist theory
  2.2.2Attribution theory
  2.2.3 Humanistic learning theory
  2.2.4 Zone of Proximal Development theory
  
  2.3 Related researches at home and abroad
  2.3.1 Related researches abroad
  2.3.2 Related researches at home
  
  3. Research Design
  
  3.1 Research questions
  3.2 Research subjects
  3.3 Research instrument
  3.4 Research procedures
  
  4. DataAnalysis and Discussion
  
  4.1 Basic information analysis
  
  4.2 Internal causes analysis

  4.2.1 Intellectual factors
  4.2.2 Non-intellectual factors
  
  4.3 External causes analysis
  4.3.1 Teachers factors
  4.3.2 Families factors
  4.3.3 Schools factors
  4.3.4 Society factors
  
  4.4 Interview analysis
  4.4.1 Basic information of the interviewees
  4.4.2 Interview analysis
  
  5. Conclusion
  
  5.1 Major findings
  5.2 Implications

  5.3 Limitations

  In the future, it is hoped to be able to verify the solutions in the thesis and take gender differences and textbooks factors into account in the further research. The author hopes others use more theoretical tools in the same research and achieve more significant results.

  Bibliography

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