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高中英语口语课中概念图的引入探究

发布时间:2019-05-06
  摘 要
  
  目前《全日制普通高中英语课程标准》(2017)对学生的口语能力提出了更高的要求:总体目标是培养学生综合语言运用能力,高中阶段学生应能就日常生活的各种话题与他人交换信息,并陈述自己的意见。但是由于高考对高中英语教学的负面反拨效应,在高中英语课堂上,着眼点几乎都在于语法,阅读,写作而忽视了口语交际能力的培养。学生很难形成跨文化交际意识,英语口语交际的现状不尽如人意,言不达意且言而无味,学生的口语表达能力逐步退化。概念图作为一种实现概念交互的有效工具,以直观形象的方式呈现思考过程及知识关联,帮助学生理解和记忆听力材料,通过提高学生的逻辑思维能力,进而提高其口语表达能力。因此,本文试图将概念图应用于高中英语口语教学中,旨在从直观的概念结构角度探索一种创新的英语口语教学方法。
  
  本研究以奥苏贝尔的有意义学习理论和皮亚杰的建构主义学习理论为基础,采取定量与定性相结合的方法,探究概念图的应用对学生英语口语成绩的影响,探索高中英语学习者是否能够通过概念图实现英语口语表达能力的提高。为了实现研究目标, 本文主要探讨三个研究问题:(1)学生对概念图在口语教学中的应用有什么态度?(2)概念图在口语教学中的应用对学生口语表达能力有何影响具体体现在哪些方面?

高中英语口语课中概念图的引入探究
  
  本研究采用实验和问卷调查,选取辽宁省盘锦市某高中高一年级两个平行班的学生为研究对象,进行了为期 4 个月的教学实验。实验班采用结合概念图的口语教学方式,对照班采用常规的口语教学方式。最后,通过实验前后实验班与对照班的对比,研究使用社会科学统计软件(SPSS20.0)对所得数据进行了描述性分析和独立样本 T 检验。
  
  研究结果显示:概念图在口语教学中的应用对学生口语表达的连贯性,流利性,准确性以及完整性上有积极影响。概念图在英语口语教学中的应用受到了多数学生的认可和欢迎。这种新的口语教学模式通过培养学生的英语逻辑思维能力,不仅缓解了学生口语表达时的紧张和焦虑,还激发了学生的语言表达欲望。
  
  此外,将概念图引入到高中英语口语教学中能够有效提高学生的英语口语表达能力。总的来说,借助于概念图的英语口语教学比传统的口语教学方法更有效,因此它值得广大师生的关注。
  
  关键词:  概念图;英语口语教学;实证研究。
  
  Abstract
  
  The Ordinary Senior High English Curriculum Standard (2017) has set a higher standard for students’ oral competence: the general objective is to cultivate students’abilities of using language comprehensively, particularly in the stage of high school,students should possess the ability to exchange some information with others about specific and various topics in daily life and then expound individual opinions.
  
  However, due to the negative backwash effect of the College Entrance Examination on English teaching in senior high schools, the focus is almost on grammar, reading and writing while neglecting the cultivation of oral communicative competence. It is so tough for students to develop cross-cultural awareness. The current situation of students’ language communication and their speaking abilities are far from satisfactory. As an effective tool of interacting concepts, Concept map is presented intuitively to show the process of thinking and the connection of knowledge. It can not only help students understand and memorize listening materials but also improve students’ logical thinking abilities,consequently improve their oral English competence. Therefore, this research attempts to apply Concept map to Oral English Teaching in senior high school,aiming to explore an innovative oral English teaching method from the perspective of intuitive conceptual structure.
  
  Based on Ausubel’ meaningful learning theory and Jean Piaget’s constructivism learning theory, this study adopts qualitative method and quantitative method to discuss the effect of the application of Concept map on students’ English spoken achievements and whether the Concept map is conducive to the senior high school students’ English spoken abilities. In order to achieve the aim, this research focuses on the following two questions: (1) What is the students’ attitude to the application of Concept map in Oral English Teaching? (3) What effects and in which aspects does the application of Concept Map have on students’ oral English ability? In this 4-month experiment the researcher adopts the methods of experiment and questionnaire, and selects two parallel classes of students as research subjects from a senior high school in Panjin, Liaoning Province. Specifically, the Oral English Teaching model with Concept map is adopted in the experimental class while the regular traditional Oral English Teaching model is employed in the control class.
  
  Finally, based on the comparison of the control class and the experimental class before and after the experiment, The thesis is to analyze the collected data with SPSS20.0.
  
  The results of the research reveal that the application of Concept map in Oral English Teaching has a positive effect on students’ spoken ability in terms of fluency,coherence, accuracy and completeness. The application of Concept map in Oral English Teaching is accepted and welcomed by the majority of students. Through cultivating students’ English logical thinking abilities, this new spoken teaching model is not only beneficial for relieving students’anxiety when expressing ideas, but also conducive to facilitate their desire of language expression. Besides, the application of the Concept map in Oral English Teaching in senior high school can effectively promote students’ English spoken ability. Generally speaking, the Oral English Teaching with the help of Concept map is more effective than traditional spoken teaching. Therefore, it deserves the attention of teachers and students.
  
  Key words:   Concept map; Oral English Teaching; Empirical study。
  
  Chapter 1 Introduction
  
  The first chapter describes the issue that it is important for students, especially the students in senior high school to study oral English from different aspects.Furthermore, the importance of the research is shown due to the latest English oral teaching situation.
  
  1.1 Background of the Study。
  
  With China being a number of the economic globalization, the English level of the citizens has got a higher standard and requirement with the rapidly increasing speed of information, which means, English as a communication tool is an essential skill that everyone should master.Apart from the deep-set English writing ability,fluent speaking ability is also a must, which the society will pay more attention to.
  
  The achievements of "New Curriculum"shows that teaching and learning spoken English is now facing a big challenge.English is an international language whose primary function is communication (Gayle et al.,2002).So teaching and guiding students to know how to communicate well with English will be useful and beneficial for their growth and future life.
  
  Nowadays, social-linguistic environment as well as the pressure of the national matriculation are both the limitations of students' taking part in class and even becoming their limitations in improving their oral English ability (Wolfram et al.,1969). In our country, most of senior high school teachers still pay much attention to reading and writing rather than oral English. As to the students, they are not interested in learning English,but performing well in the exams. So students won't put enough effort into oral English study. Therefore, those students who gain high grades in written examination cannot do the same in the oral expression.Worse still, some of them may even never speak English confidently.
  
  Actually, it is known to all of us,oral English study needs an environment which is open and free, so that students can develop their English context comprehension ability and oral application. While in fact, students have very few chances to communicate in English situation, and they use English as a communicate tool mainly during the class. They usually read the dialogue,and practice with classmates.In the teaching process, teachers always put their eyesight and most efforts in grammar learning and sentence pattern. Meanwhile, the time for the students to speak is limited.
  
  Besides, teachers and students in classroom communicate less. There is a must to take this issue seriously and to take some useful methods to change this condition in English teaching.
  
  According to the deficiency of the former corresponding researches, as well as the discovery or previous studies on spoken English teaching in both colleges and middle schools, this study is meant to apply constructive data to senior high school spoken English teaching. Besides, to cultivate students' good learning habits and methods is the ultimatepurpose of the edition of English teaching material standards. The quality of teaching and learning can be improved by good teaching methods.Concept map teaching can be suitable for the various age characteristics and psychology of senior high school students, and is good for the growth of students' learning habits and transfer learning.
  
  In fact, speaking competence plays the most important role in communication,as we all realize that the ultimate goal of language learning is using the language to communicate with others. So the thesis intends to study the influence of Concept map in oral English teaching and find out some helpful methods to solve the problems. Gradually, passive learning can turn into active learning. Above all,Concept map will lift the passion and independent thoughts of students.
  
  1.2 Significance of the Study。
  
  In a sense, this paper offers a new view for the oral English teaching practice of senior high school. Now in our Chinese senior high schools, English teaching lacks students' participation and communication in the speech time, for example, their performance in English classes are limited to simply answers to the teachers’questions.
  
  Therefore, the knowledge which the students have obtained can not be used in the real situation, so they will feel difficult and anxious in the process of communication. Interms of constructivism, learning a language are associated with the real life situations very closely. As a consequence, the English teaching is asked to provide a realcommunicative topic in spoken practical language activities.Based on the constant language study, context shows its high status in the study of language. Gradually,Concepts Map has drawn more and more attention. In senior high school ,the situation of the study of oral English teaching can not be ignored and the Concepts Maps will broaden oral English teaching’s research view, which plays a significant role in improving the effect of oral English teaching.
  
  Secondly, this research enriches the oral English teaching ways in senior high schools, which does good to advancing transformation of the teachers' teaching methods and promoting teaching practical and innovational abilities. In senior high school, language knowledge teaching constantly ranks on the first position among teachers and students, while the communicative practice chances are not seen as an important thing. This type of teaching method results in low efficiency in the oral English classroom teaching. On that condition, arousing students' interest in learning is difficult. Meanwhile, scarcity of enough cultural background knowledge will influence the students' oral expression. In brief, the application of Concepts Maps teaching will contribute to the teaching of oral English in senior high school.
  
  In such environment, the study will do research on the use of Concepts Map in oral English classes in senior high school, and the Concepts Maps in oral English of senior high school means the English teachers in senior high school spare no effort to put out the situations where students are interested in taking part in the class as if they were in natural communication environment using their own language. In gradual practice, the English class will make the most of the communication between teachers and students, in that case, students can play an active role in the learning process.
  
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  1.3 Organization of the Study

  Chapter 2 Literature Review

  2.1 Concept map
  2.1.1 Definitions of Concept map
  2.1.2 Characteristics of Concept map
  2.1.3 Types of Concept map
  2.2 Oral English Teaching
  2.2.1 Current Situation of Oral English Teaching
  2.2.2 Studies on Oral English Teaching
  2.3 Theoretical Basis
  2.3.1 Meaningful learning theory
  2.3.2 Constructivism learning theory
  2.4 Related Studies Abroad and at Home
  2.4.1 Related Studies Abroad
  2.4.2 Related Studies at Home

  Chapter 3 Research Methodology

  3.1 Research Questions
  3.2 Research Subjects
  3.3 Research Instruments
  3.3.1 Tests
  3.3.2 Questionnaires
  3.4 Research Procedure.
  3.5 Data Collection

  Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Discussion

  4.1 Data Analysis
  4.1.1 Data Analysis of the Pre-test and Post-test
  4.1.2 Data Analysis of Questionnaire
  4.2 Discussion
  4.2.1 The Specific aspects of the Application of Concept map influnencing Students’Speaking and Thinking Ability.
  4.2.2The Influence of the Application of Concept map on Students’ Spoken Ability

  Chapter 5 Conclusion

  5.1 Major Findings
  5.2 Pedagogical Implication
  5.3 Limitations of the Study

  5.4 Suggestions for Further Research

  Until now, numbers of researches regard Concept mapping model as a considerable tool. While What complicates matters is that more studies have been carried out, which will show a higher level of complexity. Nowadays, there has been a variety of evidence that Concept mapping model is of great benefit in teaching practices with more and more studies beginning to prepare to exploring its effects, so teachers and students should devote all themselves to exploring and analyzing the teaching method aiming at finding out better development in teaching and learning.

  As we all know, learning habits and methods once come to formation at the period of senior high school, which may influence students' learning habits throughout their whole life. As for this thesis concerned, it merely puts focus on the practicability ,feasibility and feedback of Concept mapping -based model.

  However, there are still many areas remaining to be explored. For example, how to set up the situation to meet the different interests of learners; how to balance the roles and functions of teachers in implementing the concept mapping model. In addition, additional problems should also be taken into account in the further studies.

  References
  

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