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汽车测试系统项目开发成本优化研究

发布时间:2019-02-23

  摘 要

  华骏汽车公司测试平台建设项目成本控制研究项目成本控制是项目投资方对项目管理的考察重点,从项目立项伊始到项目决算,项目成本控制工作需要贯穿整个项目周期。汽车测试平台项目作为国家新能源产业的重点扶持对象,成本控制是新能源车企业间相互博弈的重要筹码,因此通过精细化成本管理,企业可以将有限的资金尽最大限度的投入到新能源汽车研发测试,促使企业在科技研发能力上形成突破,在激烈的市场竞争中处于领先地位。

  本文依据项目成本管理的基本理论,结合华骏汽车公司测试平台建设项目背景,介绍了测试平台项目不同阶段的成本问题;分析了项目在设计阶段、采购阶段、安装和调试阶段造成成本上升的原因;提出了各阶段成本问题的控制方案和实施手段。论文主要内容如下:

  论文首先介绍了华骏公司汽车测试平台项目成本控制的背景、研究意义、研究内容和研究方法,并对成本控制理论和相关文献进行了梳理和评述,论文以提出问题、分析问题和解决问题的思路进行研究,主要讨论了设计、采购、安装以及调试阶段的成本超支、原因和解决方案等问题。

  其次,论文分析了项目成本在上述项目周期内存在的问题和形成的原因,包括:一是设计成本超支问题,体现在概念设计和可行性研究没有参照国家行业规范,导致概念设计与深化设计的偏离问题,造成直接或间接设计增补项,设计增补项影响到原有设计部分的项目预算,形成成本超支问题;二是采购成本问题。一方面体现在招标范围变化后导致采购成本上升,另一方面,公司采购流程无法应对外部市场环境的变化而发生变革,导致采购成本出现超支;三是安装和调试的成本超支问题。该问题源于项目工期压缩后如何保证施工质量和相应的补救措施等,补救措施需要考虑克服自然气候因素、人员的出勤调配困难因素,为减少以上两个因素对项目工期和施工质量的影响,后期投入的资金客观上造成安装和调试成本超支问题。

  第三,针对设计、采购、安装与调试各阶段的成本超支问题的原因,论文提出了成本控制措施和实施手段。在设计成本超支问题上,提出变更项目成本管理流程措施,明确项目组、用户部门、基础设施建设部、设备总承包商相关方的责任划分,通过增派管理人员和信息化管理手段有效控制项目变更的发生。

  在采购成本超支问题上,提出通过精细化招标管理方案与灵活性较强的绿色快速审批通道,实现对项目采购综合成本管理,有效起到成本控制作用。在安装与调试成本超支问题上,提出通过关键里程碑计划管理,寻找项目风险管理的方法,排除过程中的不利因素,解决了安装和调试阶段的成本超支问题。

  关键词:成本控制,变更管理,精细化管理,控制管理,挣值分析法

  Abstract

  Cost Control Research of Test Bench Construction Project,Huajun AutomotiveProject cost control is the key element of project investment management.

  Project cost control needs to run through the whole project cycle from the beginningof project to the final completion. As the key object of the national NEV industrydevelopment, the cost control is an important bargaining chip for all automotivecompetition. Through the lean cost management, the enterprise can devote the limitedbudget to the NEV research and development test, which result in scientific andtechnological research and development capabilities grow up via the fierce marketcompetition and become dominant position.

  Based on the basic theory of project cost management, this paper set up based onthe background of the construction project of the test benches, which introduces thecost of the different stages of the test bench construction phases, analyzes thereasons of the cost rising in the design phase, the procurement phase, the installationand the commissioning phase, and puts forward the control scheme and theimplementing means of the cost problems in each phases. The main parts of the paperinclude:

  Firstly, the paper introduces the background of cost control of the automobiletest benches of Huajun, and expounds that the problem of design, purchase,installation and debugging cost overruns in the project construction is the main line ofthis paper.

  Secondly, the paper analyzes the problems and formation causes of the projectcost in the project cycle, and summarizes the three parts. First, the design costoverruns are embodied in the concept design and feasibility study without referenceto the national industry norms, leading to conceptual design and deepen the designdeviation problem. Design deviations result in direct or indirect design change, designchange that affect the project budget for the original design part, and cost overruns.The second is that the cost of purchasing is reflected in the change of the scope of thebidding, which leads to the increase of purchasing cost. On the other hand, thecompany procurement process can not cope with the changes in the external marketenvironment and create cost overruns. The third is the cost overruns of installationand commissioning how to guarantee the construction quality and correspondingremedial measures after the project duration is compressed. Remedial measures needto consider to overcome the natural climate factors, the personnel's attendancedeployment difficult factors, in order to reduce the above two factors to the projectduration and the construction quality influence, the later investment funds objectivelycauses the installment and the debugging cost overruns the question.

  Third, in the face of design, procurement, installation and commissioning of thecost overruns at various stages, the article mentioned the cost control measures andimplementation means. In the design cost overruns, this paper introduces the projectcost change management process. The change management process defined thedivision of responsibilities between the project team, the user department, theinfrastructure construction department and the equipment general contractor, andeffectively controlled the change of the project through the deployment of additionalmanagement personnel and information management tools. On the issue of costoverruns, the comprehensive cost management of project procurement can beeffectively controlled by the detailed bidding management scheme and the flexiblegreen quick approval channel. In the problem of cost overruns of installation andcommissioning, the project risk management method was found through keymilestone plan management, and the disadvantages of the process were eliminated,and the cost overruns in the installation and commissioning phases were solved.

  Key Words:Cost Control, Change Management,Lean Management,Control Management,Earned Value Analysis.
 

  目 录

  第 1 章 绪论

  1.1 研究背景与意义
  1.2 研究方法与内容
  1.3 理论基础与文献综述

  第 2 章 华骏汽车公司测试平台建设项目成本现状和存在的问题

  2.1 项目概况与成本现状
  2.2 项目设计成本与实际成本的偏差问题
  2.3 采购阶段成本超支问题
  2.4 安装和调试阶段存在的成本问题

  第 3 章 华骏汽车公司测试平台建设项目成本偏差成因分析

  3.1 项目需求变化对设计成本的影响
  3.2 卖方市场行为对采购成本影响
  3.3 项目进度变化对安装和调试阶段成本影响

  第 4 章 华骏汽车公司测试平台建设项目成本控制方案与实施

  4.1 深化设计与设计变更成本控制
  4.2 供应商招标流程精细化管理
  4.3 项目安装关键节点控制管理

  结 论

  参考文献

  致 谢

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