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姓名变更权利保护问题探析

发布时间:2019-02-22

摘 要

  姓名具有表征个体和区别他人的重要功能,因此姓名对于自然人而言非常重要。姓名变更权作为姓名决定权的延伸,是姓名权的体现。姓名变更权被纳入民法体系予以保护,是重要的民法权利;同时又为宪法所规定,是一项重要的基本人格权利。因此姓名变更权具有私权属性。姓名变更被纳入户籍管理,而后具有公示意义,于是公民姓名变更权又具有公法属性。随着权利意识的觉醒,越来越多的自然人开始积极行使姓名变更权,这是权利意识的进步。在姓名变更权的行使上,一方面是各种合理的变更姓名的诉求得不到保障,主要原因是姓名变更申请纳入户籍管理之后,户籍管理部门作过多限制,使得姓名变更权作为一种基本人格权利难以彰显;另一方面是滥用权利情况比较突出,自然人行使私权利可能会影响到他人或社会利益,因此各种因行使姓名变更权而引起的诉讼尤其是与户籍管理机关之间的诉讼接连不断,主要原因是关于姓名变更的法规没有统一性、系统性。此外,理论界对于姓名变更权作为基本民事权利应不应当限制以及在多大程度上受到公法的限制、行政规章甚至更低层级的规范性文件能否作为限制依据都有争议。由于姓名变更权关涉自然人的人格利益,对其予以保护具有现实必要性,因此亟需找寻合理保护姓名变更权的路径和方式。明确姓名变更权的基本人格权利属性,加快针对姓名变更权的统一规定,对合理规范姓名变更权的行使,具有重要的现实意义。

姓名变更权利保护问题探析

  本文重点分析了姓名变更权的法律保护现状,从姓名变更权的权利属性及其意义进行界定,通过若干案例分析了姓名变更权在不同个案中的行使、限制方面出现的问题,指出当前姓名变更权规定的现状与不足、姓名变更申请异化为许可,以及实务中姓名变更权未真正确立为基本权利的地位,是导致户籍管理部门过多干预的原因,而姓名变更权规定不统一是主要问题。

  基于以上分析,得出以下结论:一方面,需要对姓名变更权进行保护,明确姓名变更权于自然人主体的法律功能,以及姓名变更权在民事法律中的表达及具体体例,尽量压缩公权力在姓名变更申请审查过程中的自由裁量空间;另一方面,承认姓名变更申请被纳入户籍管理后,此项权利在一定程度上应为户籍管理机关约束,而不能随意行使。文章在比较域外尤其是与中国传统相近的日本以及我国台湾地区做法后,试从保护和适当限制两个角度去保护该项私权,首先是确立统一层级的规定,在申请主体的适格性上进行甄别,同时注意区别更姓与更名,确立改名从宽原则;其次是注意审查变更事由,将姓名规范性和适当性、变更次数等作为是否给予变更的考量因素;再次,以特定社会的公共利益和公序良俗为判断基准约束公权对姓名变更权的过分限制以保护姓名变更权,更好地实现姓名变更权;最后,户籍管理机关应当引入听证程序和说明理由制度,以求对姓名变更申请的理由和依据进行合理审查、判断;行政、司法机关应注意对公序良俗等法律概念进行个案分析和动态价值判断,使之类型化,并保持公序良俗的与时俱进的开放性。以上或许是对合理保护姓名变更权的有益尝试和有所建树的方向。

  关键词:姓名权;姓名变更权;法律保护

ABSTRACT

  Names have important functions to characterize individuals and to distinguish others, so names are very important for citizens. As an extension of the right of name setting, the right of rename is the embodiment of the right to name.the right of rename is protected by the civil law system, which is an important civil right. At the same time, it is an important basic personality right, which is stipulated by the constitution. Therefore, the right of rename has the property of private rights. Name change is brought into the domicile management, and it has the meaning of publicity, so the right of rename has the property of public law. With the awakening of citizens' consciousness of rights, more and more citizens have begun to exercise the right to change their names actively, which is the progress of the consciousness of rights. On the one hand, various appeals for changing names cannot be guaranteed. The main reason is that after the application of name change is incorporated into household registration management, the household registration department limits the name change of citizens, making the right of name change as a basic personality right difficult to manifest.On the other hand, the abuse of the rights to change name is very prominent. Natural person may affect the exercise of private rights of others or public interests. Therefore, the lawsuit is caused by the exercise of the right of name change, especially in connection with the lawsuit between the household registration authority. The main reason is that the normative documents on name change are not unified and systematic. In addition, the theorists are disputed whether the right of renames should be restricted and to what extent the restrictions by public law. There is also a dispute over whether the administrative regulations or even the lower level of the normative documents can be used as a basis for the restriction of the right of rename. As the right of name change concerns the personal interests of every citizen, it is necessary to protect the right of renames. Therefore, it is urgent to find the way to standardize the right of renames. To speed up the uniform legislation of name change and clarify the basic personality rights attribute of the right of name change is of great practical significance to reasonably regulate the exercise of the right of name change.

  This article focuses on the definition of the right attribute and meaning of the right of rename. And through case analysis, we know that there are problems on the exercise and on restrictions, pointed out that the current name change legislation situation and defects, as well as the application of alienation of name change to license and the right of name change is not really established as the status of citizens' basic rights in practice, it is the reason why administrative departments intervene too much. The main problem is that the legislation of the right of rename is not unified.

  Based on the above analysis, we should clarify the legal function and role of the right of name change to the natural person, and the style of name change right in the civil code and civil law,to compress the public power change discretion in the application process in the review of the name;On the other hand, we should admit that the right of name change should be restricted to some extent after the application of the name change application into the domicile management. After comparing the practices overseas, especially those in Taiwan and Japan, which are similar to Chinese tradition, this paper tries to learn from the two aspects of restriction and protection to protect the privacy right of name change, and to prevent the abuse of rights. First of all,we should establish a unified legislation, analysis whether the applicant is the right person;at the same time, we should pay attention to the difference between the surname change and name change, established the principle to relax restrictions on name change.

  Secondly, we should pay attention to the reasons, and appropriate specification of the name, the number of change should be taken into account. Thirdly, we should take public interests , public order and social customs as the criteria to restrict public power on limiting the right of renames, so as to protect the right of name change and better realize the right of name change, to better achieve the right of name change. Finally, the household registration authorities should introduce hearing procedure and explanation system, in order to make reasonable examination and judgement of the reasons and grounds for the application of name change. The judicial organs should pay attention to the case analysis and dynamic value judgment of the legal concepts such as public order and good customs, and keep the openness of the public order and good customs with the times. The above may be a useful attempt to standardize the right of rename and the direction of some success.

  KEYWORDS: right of name;right of rename;legal protection

目 录

  引 言
  第一章 姓名变更权法律保护基本问题
    第一节 姓名变更权相关概念
      一、姓名的含义与功能
      二、姓名权的权能内容
      三、姓名变更权的概念
    第二节 姓名权主体、客体理论及归位
      一、姓名权主体
      二、姓名权客体理论及归位
    第三节 姓名变更权理论基础及内容
      一、姓名变更权理论基础
      二、姓名变更权的内容
  第二章 姓名变更权法律 保护现状与问题
    第一节 姓名变更权法律保护现状
      一、姓名变更权立法现状
      二、处理依据各不相同
      三、对相关规定的评价
    第二节 姓名变更权法律保护存在的问题及原因
      一、姓名变更权法律保护存在的问题
      二、姓名变更权法律保护存在问题的原因分析
  第三章 姓名变更权域外法律制度借鉴
    第一节 姓名变更权域外规定
    第二节 域外规定之借鉴意义
  第四章 姓名变更权法律保护制度完善建议
    第一节 突出姓名变更权的民事权利地位
      一、保障自然人享有平等姓名变更权
      二、确定变更要件以防止私权滥用
      三、明确变更之后应尽的法律义务
      四、注意姓名变更权的动态平衡
    第二节 运用实体和程序控制公权
      一、统一姓名变更规定
      二、行政听证程序运用
      三、说明理由制度运用
    第三节 适当限制姓名变更权的行使
      一、公权力介入的必要性
      二、公权力介入的界限
  结 语
  参考文献
  在读期间科研成果

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